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The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana


  • Ranjan Ray


This paper investigates the main determinants of child labour and child schooling in Ghana, with special reference to their interaction. The study provides evidence on the impact of poverty and quality of schooling on child labour hours, taking into account their potential endogeneity. The exercise distinguishes between cluster poverty and household poverty in the two-stage Heckman estimation procedure. In addition, it relies on a set of non-common regressors to identify the child labour hours regression from the selection equation. Other methodological features include simultaneous equations estimation of child labour, child schooling and poverty, taking into account their joint endogeneity. The empirical results contain some evidence of sharp rural urban differences, thus, pointing to the need to adopt region specific policies in enhancing child welfare. However, rural, semi-urban and urban Ghana agree on the effective role that improved school attendance can play in curbing child labour. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Determinants of Child Labour and Child Schooling in Ghana," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 11(4), pages 561-590, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:jafrec:v:11:y:2002:i:4:p:561-590

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Krauss,Alexander, 2013. "Understanding child labor beyond poverty : the structure of the economy, social norms, and no returns to rural basic education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6513, The World Bank.
    2. Francesca Marchetta & David E. Sahn, 2016. "The Role of Education and Family Background in Marriage, Childbearing, and Labor Market Participation in Senegal," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 369-403.
    3. Bluffstone, Randall & Yesuf, Mahmud & Bushie, Bilisuma & Damite, Demessie, 2008. "Rural Livelihoods, Poverty, and the Millennium Development Goals: Evidence from Ethiopian Survey Data," Discussion Papers dp-08-07-efd, Resources For the Future.
    4. Runa Ray & Biswajit Chatterjee, 2010. "Impact of Restrictive Trade Policy on Adult Unemployment, Welfare and the Incidence of Child Labour -A Three Sector General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Quantitative Economics, The Indian Econometric Society, vol. 8(1), pages 148-161, January.
    5. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    6. Madeeha Gohar Qureshi & Saman Nazir & Hafsa Hina, 2014. "Child Work and Schooling in Pakistan— To What Extent Poverty and Other Demographic and Parental Background Matter?," PIDE-Working Papers 2014:105, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    7. Yohanne Kidolezi & Jessica Holmes & Hugo Ñopo & Paul Sommers, 2007. "Selection and Reporting Bias in Household Surveys of Child Labor: Evidence from Tanzania," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 19(2), pages 368-378.
    8. Heather Congdon Fors, 2012. "Child Labour: A Review Of Recent Theory And Evidence With Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 570-593, September.
    9. Eugenia Fotoniata & Thomas Moutos, 2013. "Product Quality, Informality, and Child Labor," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 268-283, May.
    10. Burhan, Nik Ahmad Sufian & Sidek, Abdul Halim & Ibrahim, Saifuzzaman, 2016. "Eradicating the Crime of Child Labour in Africa: The Roles of Income, Schooling, Fertility, and Foreign Direct Investment," MPRA Paper 77250, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Maldonado, Jorge H. & González-Vega, Claudio, 2008. "Impact of Microfinance on Schooling: Evidence from Poor Rural Households in Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2440-2455, November.
    12. Hilson, Gavin, 2008. "'A load too heavy': Critical reflections on the child labor problem in Africa's small-scale mining sector," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 1233-1245, November.
    13. Saswati Das & Diganta Mukherjee, 2007. "Role of women in schooling and child labour decision: the case of urban boys in India," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 82(3), pages 463-486, July.
    14. Diganta Mukherjee & Saswati Das, 2008. "Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 89(2), pages 305-322, November.
    15. Chakraborty, Bidisha & Chakraborty, Kamalika, 2016. "Low Level Equilibrium Trap, Unemployment, School Quality, Child Labour and Human Capital Formation," MPRA Paper 74621, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Jafarey, Saqib & Lahiri, Sajal, 2002. "Will trade sanctions reduce child labour?: The role of credit markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 137-156, June.
    17. Hilson, Gavin, 2012. "Family Hardship and Cultural Values: Child Labor in Malian Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1663-1674.
    18. Geoffrey Lancaster & Ranjan Ray, 2004. "Does Child Labour Affect School Attendance and School Performance?Multi Country Evidence on SIMPOC data," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 68, Econometric Society.
    19. Mukherjee, Dipa, 2010. "Child workers in India: an overview of macro dimensions," MPRA Paper 35049, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
    20. Shunsuke Sakamoto, 2006. "Parental Attitudes toward Children and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural India," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-136, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    21. Leonardo Becchetti & Stefano Castriota & Nazaria Solferino, 2011. "Development Projects and Life Satisfaction: An Impact Study on Fair Trade Handicraft Producers," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 115-138, March.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General


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