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On Understanding Money

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  • Martin Shubik

Abstract

Fiat money is a creation of both the state and society. Its value is supported by expectations which are conditioned by the dynamics of trust in government, the socio-economic structure and by outside events such as wars, plagues or political unrest. The micro-management of a dynamic economy is not far removed in difficulty from the micro-management of the weather. However, money and the financial institutions and instruments of a modern economy provide the means to influence expectations and bound behaviour. The control of the fiat money supply, together with rules on the granting of credit and the bankruptcy, default and reorganisation rules are public services. They provide lower and upper bounds for the price level in the economy. They also determine the innovation rate of the economy. An innovation may be regarded as an economic mutation; the less costly failure is, the more likely an innovation will be risked.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Shubik, 2001. "On Understanding Money," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 2(1), pages 95-120, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:wej:wldecn:48
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    Cited by:

    1. Davies, Ronald B. & Voy, Annie, 2009. "The effect of FDI on child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 59-66, January.
    2. Sarbajit Chaudhuri, 2010. "Mid-Day Meal Program And Incidence Of Child Labour In A Developing Economy," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 61(2), pages 252-265.
    3. Pallage, Stephane & Zimmermann, Christian, 2007. "Buying out child labor," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 75-90, March.
    4. Neumayer, Eric & de Soysa, Indra, 2005. "Trade Openness, Foreign Direct Investment and Child Labor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 43-63, January.
    5. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, February.
    6. Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Chris, 2000. "Child farm labour: theory and evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6654, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Ray, R., 2001. "Simultaneous Analysis of Child Labour and Child Schooling: Comparative Evidence from Nepal and Pakistan," Papers 2001-04, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    8. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2002. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(1), pages 41-62.
    9. Gersbach, Hans & Siemers, Lars, 2005. "Can Democracy Educate a Society?," IZA Discussion Papers 1693, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Sarbajit Chaudhuri, 2004. "Incidence of Child Labour, Free Education Policy, and Economic Liberalisation in a Developing Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 1-25.
    11. Satya P. Das & Rajat Deb, 2003. "Policies to combat child labor: A dynamic analysis," Indian Statistical Institute, Planning Unit, New Delhi Discussion Papers 04-01, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India.
    12. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2003. "Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 137-160.

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