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The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Eliana Cardoso

    () (Department of Economics, University of Sao Paulo)

  • Andre Portela Souza

    () (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University, and Department of Economics, University of Sao Paulo,)

Abstract

The paper estimates the impact on school attendance and child labor of conditional cash payments to poor families in Brazil. It describes Brazil's transfer programs and presents statistics on school attendance and child labor. In the second half of the 1990s, many municipalities had adopted the "Bolsa Escola" (a cash transfer conditional on school attendance) and/or the federal minimum income program (in place during 1999 and 2000 and replaced by the "Bolsa Escola Federal" in 2001). Although conditional cash transfer programs in Brazil have been in place since 1996, studies on their ex-post impact are very few. Micro household level data from the 2000 Census allows the use of propensity score methods to estimate the impact of income transfers on child labor and school attendance. The paper finds that income transfer programs had no significant effect on child labor but a positive and significant impact on school attendance. These preliminary results suggest that these programs have not been effective in fighting child labor in Brazil. They increase the chance of a poor child going to school but do not reduce her labor activity perhaps because she prefers to combine school and labor, considering that the transfers are too small to provide an incentive to forgo the labor income.

Suggested Citation

  • Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0407
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Cited by:

    1. Genicot, Garance & Mayda, Anna Maria & Mendola, Mariapia, 2016. "The Impact of Migration on Child Labor: Theory and Evidence from Brazil," IZA Discussion Papers 10444, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Wang Sophie Xuefei, 2014. "The Effect of Parental Migration on the Educational Attainment of Their Left-Behind Children in Rural China," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 14(3), pages 1-44, July.
    3. Garcia, Luis, 2006. "Oferta de trabajo infantil y el trabajo en los quehaceres del hogar
      [The supply of child labor and household work]
      ," MPRA Paper 31402, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Irineu Evangelista de Carvalho Filho, 2012. "Household Income as a Determinant of Child Labor and School Enrollment in Brazil: Evidence from a Social Security Reform," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 399-435.
    5. Duryea, Suzanne & Lam, David & Levison, Deborah, 2007. "Effects of economic shocks on children's employment and schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 188-214, September.
    6. Claus Pörtner, 2016. "Effects of parental absence on child labor and school attendance in the Philippines," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 103-130, March.
    7. Juan Saavedra & Sandra Garcia, 2012. "Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries A Meta-analysis," Working Papers WR-921-1, RAND Corporation.
    8. Leonardo Bursztyn & Lucas C. Coffman, 2012. "The Schooling Decision: Family Preferences, Intergenerational Conflict, and Moral Hazard in the Brazilian Favelas," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 120(3), pages 359-397.
    9. Tavares, Priscilla Albuquerque, 2010. "Efeito do Programa Bolsa Família sobre a oferta de trabalho das mães," Revista Economia e Sociedade, Instituto de Economia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), vol. 41, pages 1-23, December.
    10. Ariel Fiszbein & Norbert Schady & Francisco H.G. Ferreira & Margaret Grosh & Niall Keleher & Pedro Olinto & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2009. "Conditional Cash Transfers : Reducing Present and Future Poverty," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2597, November.
    11. Sandra Garcia & Jennifer Hill, 2010. "Impact of conditional cash transfers on children's school achievement: evidence from Colombia," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 117-137.
    12. Forbes, Kinisha., 2011. "Inequality in crisis and recovery : revealing the divides: the case of Brazil," ILO Working Papers 994698493402676, International Labour Organization.
    13. Saavedra, Juan Esteban & Garcia, Sandra, 2012. "Impacts of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs on Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Meta-analysis," Working Papers 921-1, RAND Corporation.
    14. Rodrigo R. Soares & Diana Kruger & Matias Berthelon, 2012. "Household Choices of Child Labor and Schooling: A Simple Model with Application to Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 47(1), pages 1-31.
    15. Raul da Mota Silveira Neto, 2008. "Do Public Income Transfer to the Poorest affect Internal Inter-Regional Migration? Evidence for the case of Brazilian Bolsa Família Program," Anais do XXXVI Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 36th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 200807111106330, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    16. Deon Filmer & Norbert Schady, 2008. "Getting Girls into School: Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56, pages 581-617.
    17. Mazzutti, Caio Cícero Toledo Piza da Costa, 2016. "Three essays on the causal impacts of child labour laws in Brazil," Economics PhD Theses 0616, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    18. Marco Manacorda & Furio Camillo Rosati, 2011. "Industrial Structure and Child Labor Evidence from the Brazilian Population Census," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(4), pages 753-776.
    19. Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Marianne Bertrand & Leigh L. Linden & Francisco Perez-Calle, 2008. "Conditional Cash Transfers in Education Design Features, Peer and Sibling Effects Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Colombia," NBER Working Papers 13890, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. repec:eee:jcecon:v:46:y:2018:i:2:p:480-494 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. N. Blunch & A. Dar & L. Guarcello & S. Lyon & A. Ritualo & F. Rosati, 2002. "Children's work in Zambia: a comparative study of survey instruments," UCW Working Paper 32, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
    22. Fernando Borraz & Nicolás González, 2009. "Impact of the Uruguayan Conditional Cash Transfer Program," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 46(134), pages 243-271.
    23. Mônica A. Haddad, 2008. "Bolsa Família and the needy: is allocation contributing to equity in Brazil?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(5), pages 654-669.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child labor; school attendance; income transfer programs; Brazil;

    JEL classification:

    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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