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Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil

Author

Listed:
  • Patrick M. Emerson

    () (Department of Economics, University of Colorado at Denver)

  • Andre Portela Souza

    () (Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University)

Abstract

In this paper we examine intra-household gender differences and the incidence of child labor and children�s school attendance in Brazil to test whether the unitary model of household allocations is suitable in the child labor context. We begin by building an intra-household allocation model where fathers and mothers may affect the education investment and the child labor participation of their sons and daughters differently due to differences in the children's human capital technologies and/or differences in parental preferences. Using the 1996 Brazilian Household Survey, we estimate the impact of a parent�s education, non-labor income and child labor experience on the labor market status and school attendance of their sons and daughters separately. We find that, for children�s labor status, the father�s education, non-labor income and the age at which he first began working in the labor market has a greater impact on the labor status of sons than of daughters, while the opposite is true for mother�s education, non-labor income and the age at which she first began working in the labor market, which have a greater impact on the labor status of daughters than of sons. In addition, when it comes to schooling decisions, both fathers and mothers education and non-labor income appear to have a greater positive impact on sons than on daughters.

Suggested Citation

  • Patrick M. Emerson & Andre Portela Souza, 2002. "Bargaining over Sons and Daughters: Child Labor, School Attendance and Intra-Household Gender Bias in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0213, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:van:wpaper:0213
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jean-Marie Baland & James A. Robinson, 2000. "Is Child Labor Inefficient?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 663-679, August.
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    3. Bell, Clive & Gersbach, Hans, 2009. "Child Labor And The Education Of A Society," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(02), pages 220-249, April.
    4. Kaushik Basu, 2006. "Gender and Say: a Model of Household Behaviour with Endogenously Determined Balance of Power," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(511), pages 558-580, April.
    5. Jill Tiefenthaler, 1999. "The sectoral labor supply of married couples in Brazil: Testing the unitary model of household behavior," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 12(4), pages 591-606.
    6. Chiappori, Pierre-Andre, 1992. "Collective Labor Supply and Welfare," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(3), pages 437-467, June.
    7. Duncan Thomas, 1994. "Like Father, like Son; Like Mother, like Daughter: Parental Resources and Child Height," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 950-988.
    8. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    9. Lundberg, Shelly & Pollak, Robert A, 1993. "Separate Spheres Bargaining and the Marriage Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(6), pages 988-1010, December.
    10. Marjorie B. McElroy, 1990. "The Empirical Content of Nash-Bargained Household Behavior," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 559-583.
    11. McElroy, Marjorie B & Horney, Mary Jean, 1981. "Nash-Bargained Household Decisions: Toward a Generalization of the Theory of Demand," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 22(2), pages 333-349, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Maria L. Loureiro & Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano & Daniela Vuri, 2010. "Smoking Habits: Like Father, Like Son, Like Mother, Like Daughter?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 72(6), pages 717-743, December.
    2. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2013. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from Senegal," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 118-131.
    3. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2012. "Horticultural exports, female wage employment and primary school enrolment: Theory and evidence from a natural quasi-experiment in Senegal," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126856, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Ashwini Sebastian & Ana Paula de la O Campos & Silvio Daidone & Benjamin Davis & Ousmane Niang & Luca Pellerano, 2016. "Gender differences in child investment behaviour among agricultural households: Evidence from the Lesotho Child Grants Programme," WIDER Working Paper Series 107, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Maertens, Miet & Verhofstadt, Ellen, 2011. "Maternal Off-farm Wage Employment and Primary School Enrollment: Evidence from a Natural Quasi-experiment in Senegal," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114373, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    6. Uma Sarada Kambhampati, 2009. "Child Schooling and Work Decisions in India: The Role of Household and Regional Gender Equity," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 77-112.
    7. Eliana Cardoso & Andre Portela Souza, 2004. "The Impact of Cash Transfers on Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0407, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
    8. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2010. "Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 442-465, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child labor; Brazil; intra-household allocations; bargaining models; gender bias;

    JEL classification:

    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O54 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Latin America; Caribbean

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