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Child Labour and Child Schooling in South Asia: A Cross Country Study of their Determinants

Author

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  • Ranjan Ray

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Abstract

This study uses Nepalese data to estimate the impact of individual, household and cluster/community level variables on child labour and child schooling. The principal estimates are, then, compared with those from Bangladesh and Pakistan. The exercise is designed to identify effective policy instruments that could influence child labour and child schooling in South Asia. The results show that the impact of a variable on a child’s education/employment is, often, highly sensitive to the specification in the estimation and to the country considered. There are, however some results that are fairly robust. For example, in both Nepal and Pakistan, inequality has a strong U shaped impact on both child labour participation rates and child labour hours, thus, pointing to high inequality as a significant cause of child labour. In contrast, household poverty has only a weak link with child labour, though it seems to be more important in the context of child schooling. The current school attendance by a child has a large, negative impact on her labour hours, thus, pointing to compulsory schooling as an effective instrument in reducing child labour. Other potentially useful instruments include adult education levels, improvements in the schooling infrastructure, and the provision of amenities such as water and electricity in the villages.

Suggested Citation

  • Ranjan Ray, 2001. "Child Labour and Child Schooling in South Asia: A Cross Country Study of their Determinants," ASARC Working Papers 2001-09, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:asarcc:2001-09
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/asarc/pdf/papers/2001/WP2001_09.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
    2. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    3. Cigno, Alessandro & Rosati, Furio C., 2000. "Why do Indian Children Work, and is it Bad for Them?," IZA Discussion Papers 115, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    5. Sonia Bhalotra, 2003. "Child Labour in Africa," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 4, OECD Publishing.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Heather Congdon Fors, 2012. "Child Labour: A Review Of Recent Theory And Evidence With Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 570-593, September.
    2. Ray, R., 2001. "Simultaneous Analysis of Child Labour and Child Schooling: Comparative Evidence from Nepal and Pakistan," Papers 2001-04, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    3. Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2007. "Scolarisation et travail des enfants : Un modèle économétrique à régimes endogènes appliqué à Madagascar - 2001-2005," Documents de travail 134, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
    4. Mohammad Nashir Uddin & Mohammad Hamiduzzaman & Bernhard G. Gunter, 2009. "Physical and Psychological Implications of Risky Child Labor: A Study in Sylhet City, Bangladesh," Bangladesh Development Research Working Paper Series (BDRWPS) BDRWPS No. 8, Bangladesh Development Research Center (BDRC).
    5. Nkamleu, Guy Blaise & Fox, Louise, 2006. "Taking Stock of Research on Regional Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 15112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Mohajan, Haradhan, 2014. "Child Rights in Bangladesh," MPRA Paper 58424, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Jan 2014.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child Labour; Credit Constraints; Current School Attendance;

    JEL classification:

    • C2 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables
    • D1 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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