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How child labor and child schooling interact with adult labor

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  • Ray, Ranjan

Abstract

Using data from Peruvian and Pakistani household surveys, the author tests the hypotheses of a positive association between child labor hours and poverty and a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Both hypotheses are confirmed using Pakistani data but not using Peruvian data. What explains these divergent results? The link between household poverty and child labor is much stronger in Pakistan than in Peru - perhaps partly because Pakistani schools are not as good as those in Peru, and perhaps partly because Pakistani families value education less, especially for girls. Also, Peruvian children combine schooling with employment, unlike Pakistani children. Rising wages for men significantly reduce the labor hours of Peruvian girls. Strong complementarity exists between the labor market for women and that for girls in Pakistan. Providing good schools in South Asia could help reduce child labor and break the strong link there between poverty and hours spent in child labor. Data from both countries confirm the positive role more adult education can play in improving child welfare. Adult education's impact on child labor is considerably greater in Pakistan than in Peru. One generation's lack of skills and education causes the next to remain un-educated and unskilled as well.

Suggested Citation

  • Ray, Ranjan, 1999. "How child labor and child schooling interact with adult labor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2179, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2179
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Chiappori, Pierre-Andre & Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Kanbur, Ravi, 1993. "Unitary versus collective models of the household : time to shift theburden of proof?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1217, The World Bank.
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    9. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
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    11. Ray, Ranjan, 1983. "Measuring the costs of children : An alternative approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 89-102, October.
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    14. Lancaster, Geoffrey & Ray, Ranjan & Valenzuela, Maria Rebecca, 1999. "A Cross-Country Study of Household Poverty and Inequality on Unit Record Household Budget Data," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(1), pages 177-208, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pallage, Stephane & Zimmermann, Christian, 2007. "Buying out child labor," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 75-90, March.
    2. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2009. "The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Globalization And International Trade Policies, chapter 17, pages 623-687 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Jackline Wahba, 2001. "Child Labor and Poverty Transmission: No Room For Dreams," Working Papers 0108, Economic Research Forum, revised 03 2001.
    4. Sharmistha Self, 2011. "Market and Non-market Child Labour in Rural India: The Role of the Mother's Participation in the Labour Force," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 315-338, March.
    5. Harper, Caroline & Marcus, Rachel & Moore, Karen, 2003. "Enduring Poverty and the Conditions of Childhood: Lifecourse and Intergenerational Poverty Transmissions," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 535-554, March.
    6. World Bank, 2001. "Risk Management in South Asia : A Poverty Focused Approach," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15449, The World Bank.

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