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Migration, Transfers and Child Labor


  • Ralitza Dimova


  • Gil S. Epstein


  • Ira N. Gang

    () (Osteuropa-Institut, Regensburg (Institut for East European Studies))


We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the abil-ity to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a re-duction in children’s working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the hypothesis that both emigration and remittances reduce child labor.

Suggested Citation

  • Ralitza Dimova & Gil S. Epstein & Ira N. Gang, 2011. "Migration, Transfers and Child Labor," Working Papers 297, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
  • Handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:297

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Ranjan, Priya, 2001. "Credit constraints and the phenomenon of child labor," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 81-102, February.
    3. Sonia Bhalotra & Christopher Heady, 2003. "Child Farm Labor: The Wealth Paradox," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 197-227, December.
    4. Christian Hubert Ebeke, 2010. "The Effect of Remittances on Child Labor: Cross-Country Evidence," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 351-364.
    5. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-427, June.
    6. Di Maio, Michele & Nandi, Tushar K., 2013. "The effect of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict on child labor and school attendance in the West Bank," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 107-116.
    7. Lucas, Robert E.B., 1993. "Internal migration in developing countries," Handbook of Population and Family Economics,in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 13, pages 721-798 Elsevier.
    8. Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
    9. Marigee P. Bacolod & Priya Ranjan, 2008. "Why Children Work, Attend School, or Stay Idle: The Roles of Ability and Household Wealth," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56, pages 791-828.
    10. Alcaraz, Carlo & Chiquiar, Daniel & Salcedo, Alejandrina, 2012. "Remittances, schooling, and child labor in Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 156-165.
    11. Cynthia Buckley & Erin Trouth Hofmann, 2012. "Are Remittances an Effective Mechanism for Development? Evidence from Tajikistan, 1999--2007," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(8), pages 1121-1138, February.
    12. Beegle, Kathleen & Dehejia, Rajeev H. & Gatti, Roberta & Krutikova, Sofya, 2008. "The consequences of child labor : evidence from longitudinal data in rural Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4677, The World Bank.
    13. Epstein, Gil S. & Kahana, Nava, 2008. "Child labor and temporary emigration," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(3), pages 545-548, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bouoiyour, Jamal & Miftah, Amal, 2014. "Education, Genre et Transferts de fonds des migrants: Quelles interactions dans le Maroc rural ?
      [Education, Gender and Remittances: What interactions in rural Morocco?]
      ," MPRA Paper 57051, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Bouoiyour, Jamal, 2013. "Transferts de fonds, éducation et travail des enfants au Maroc: Une analyse par score de propension
      [Remittances, Education and Child labor in Morocco: A propensity score matching approach]
      ," MPRA Paper 46063, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. repec:laf:wpaper:201105 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Zhang, Yi & Matz, Julia Anna, 2017. "On the train to brain gain in rural China," Discussion Papers 252443, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    5. Ebeke, Christian Hubert, 2012. "The power of remittances on the international prevalence of child labor," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 452-462.
    6. Jamal Bouoiyour & Amal Miftah, 2014. "Household Welfare, International Migration And Children Time Allocation In Rural Morocco," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 39(2), pages 75-95, June.

    More about this item


    child labor; emigration; transfers; Tanzania;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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