IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Determinants of participation in child’s education and alternative activities in Pakistan

  • Lodhi, Abdul Salam
  • Tsegai, Daniel W.
  • Gerber, Nicolas

Using data from Pakistan, this study analyzed the effect of various individual, household, and community level characteristics on the probability that children engage in different activities. According to the existing trend of their prevalence, we considered five child’s activities, namely: secular schooling; religious education; child labor; a combination of child labor and secular schooling; and inactivity (including leisure). Data was collected through field surveys conducted in over 40 villages in four Pakistani provinces: Balochistan, Khyber Paktunkhwa, Punjab, and Sind. A total of 963 households were interviewed on the activities of 2,496 children. Multinomial Probit model was used for the analyses. Results indicated that parental perception had significant relationship to the probability of engagement in secular school attendance, religious education, and child labor. In addition, we investigated the relationships between participation in the different child activities with location (rural/urban) and children’s gender. We detected a lower probability of attending secular school and a higher probability of engaging in child labor among female children in rural areas. We also found that even parents who openly expressed appreciation of the importance of secular schooling were more likely to send male children to school than female children.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119110
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF) in its series Discussion Papers with number 119110.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:ubzefd:119110
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Walter-Flex-Straße 3, D - 53113 Bonn

Fax: +49 228 / 73-5097
Web page: http://www.zef.de/

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Miller, Paul & Mulvey, Charles & Martin, Nick, 2001. "Genetic and environmental contributions to educational attainment in Australia," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 211-224, June.
  2. Gunewardena, Dileni & Van de Walle, Dominique, 2000. "Sources of ethnic inequality in Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2297, The World Bank.
  3. Edmonds, Eric V., 2006. "Child labor and schooling responses to anticipated income in South Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 386-414, December.
  4. Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Specific Experience, Household Structure and Intergenerational Transfers: Farm Family Land and Labor Arrangements in Developing Countries," Bulletins 8432, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
  5. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
  6. Pushkar Maitra & Ranjan Ray, 2000. "The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative Evidence from Three Continents," ASARC Working Papers 2000-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  7. F.Rosati & M. Rossi, 2007. "Impact of school quality on child labor and school attendance: the case of CONAFE Compensatory Education Program in Mexico," UCW Working Paper 21, Understanding Children's Work (UCW Programme).
  8. Dessy, Sylvain E. & Pallage, Stephane, 2001. "Child labor and coordination failures," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 469-476, August.
  9. Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, 04.
  10. Furio Camillo Rosati & Mariacristina Rossi, 2003. "Children's Working Hours and School Enrollment: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 283-295, December.
  11. Ray, R., 1998. "Analysis of Child Labour in Peru and Pakistan: a Comparative Study," Papers 1998-05, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
  12. Miguel St. Aubyn & João Pereira, 2004. "What Level of Education Matters Most for Growth? Evidence from Portugal," Working Papers Department of Economics 2004/13, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
  13. Hazarika, Gautam & Bedi, Arjun S., 2002. "Schooling Costs And Child Labour In Rural Pakistan," Discussion Papers 18736, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
  14. Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002. "Returns to investment in education : a further update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2881, The World Bank.
  15. Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages C158-75, March.
  16. Chen, Hung-ju, 2005. "Educational systems, growth and income distribution: a quantitative study," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 325-353, April.
  17. Christelle Dumas, 2007. "Why do parents make their children work? A test of the poverty hypothesis in rural areas of Burkina Faso," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(2), pages 301-329, April.
  18. Yasuyuki Sawada & Michael Lokshin, 2007. "Obstacles to School Progression in Rural Pakistan: An Analysis of Gender and Sibling Rivalry Using Field Survey Data," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-484, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  19. Duryea, Suzanne & Arends-Kuenning, Mary, 2003. "School Attendance, Child Labor and Local Labor Market Fluctuations in Urban Brazil," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1165-1178, July.
  20. Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz & Zajonc, Tristan, 2005. "Religious School Enrollment in Pakistan: A Look at the Data," Working Paper Series rwp05-024, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  21. Colm Harmon & Hessel Oosterbeek & Ian Walker, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Microeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 115-156, 04.
  22. Glewwe, Paul & Jacoby, Hanan G., 2004. "Economic growth and the demand for education: is there a wealth effect?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 33-51, June.
  23. Uma Kambhampati & Raji Rajan, 2004. "Economic Growth: A Panacea for Child Labour?," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2004-12, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  24. Sonia Bhalotra & Christopher Heady, 2003. "Child Farm Labor: The Wealth Paradox," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(2), pages 197-227, December.
  25. Patrick M. Emerson & Shawn D. Knabb, 2006. "Opportunity, Inequality and the Intergenerational Transmission of Child Labour," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 73(291), pages 413-434, 08.
  26. Mansur, Kasim & Abd. Rahim, Dayangku Aslinah & Lim, Beatrice & Mahmud, Roslinah, 2009. "Perception towards the Importance of Education among Muslim Women in Papar, Sabah (Malaysia)," MPRA Paper 13430, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  27. Sawada, Yasayuki & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2541, The World Bank.
  28. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E., 2006. "The demand for primary schooling in Madagascar: Price, quality, and the choice between public and private providers," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 118-145, February.
  30. Behrman, Jere R. & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 2008. "Improving quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Estimates of rates of return from rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 94-104, February.
  31. Petrakis, P. E. & Stamatakis, D., 2002. "Growth and educational levels: a comparative analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 513-521, October.
  32. Tansel, Aysit, 2002. "Determinants of school attainment of boys and girls in Turkey: individual, household and community factors," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 455-470, October.
  33. Stair, Anthony & Rephann, Terance J. & Heberling, Matt, 2006. "Demand for public education: Evidence from a rural school district," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 521-531, October.
  34. Bedi, Arjun Singh & Edwards, John H. Y., 2002. "The impact of school quality on earnings and educational returns--evidence from a low-income country," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 157-185, June.
  35. Monazza Aslam, 2009. "Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 747-784, 07.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:ubzefd:119110. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.