Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia
The author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work. This is, especially, true when they are hit by an income shock and face a binding adult labor constraint. The author used panel data from the ERHS and employed a fixed effects model to pin down causal relation between shocks, membership in a labor sharing arrangement and child labor. It was found that child labor is, indeed, a buffer stock. Though a labor sharing arrangement doesn't affect child labor at normal times, it helps households to lessen the pressure to rely on it when hit by idiosyncratic shocks. While almost the whole effect of these shocks is offset by participation in a labor sharing arrangement, the covariate shock is not. Even if this may well affect a child's academic performance, school attendance doesn't decrease. This differential effect of shocks on child labor in participant households might be because of the extra adult labor made available or due to mutual support that comes with these social networks. This paper is indicative of the importance of considering social networks in smoothing out consumption. Further, it highlights the difficulty to cope up with covariate shocks and hence, calls for development interventions that are particularly meant to address their impact.
|Date of creation:||01 Jan 2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Kortenaerkade 12, 2518 AX Den Haag|
Phone: +31 70 4260 460
Fax: +31 70 4260 799
Web page: http://www.iss.nl/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- de Carvalho Filho, Irineu E., 2010.
"Household income as a determinant of child labor and school enrollment in Brazil: Evidence from a social security reform,"
26046, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Irineu Evangelista de Carvalho Filho, 2012. "Household Income as a Determinant of Child Labor and School Enrollment in Brazil: Evidence from a Social Security Reform," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 399-435.
- Irineu E de Carvalho Filho, 2008. "Household Income As A Determinant of Child Labor and School Enrollment in Brazil; Evidence From A Social Security Reform," IMF Working Papers 08/241, International Monetary Fund.
- Pramila Krishnan & Emanuela Sciubba, 2006.
"Links and Architecture in Village Networks,"
Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance
0614, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
- Calero, Carla & Bedi, Arjun S. & Sparrow, Robert, 2008.
"Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Calero, Carla & Bedi, Arjun S. & Sparrow, Robert, 2009. "Remittances, Liquidity Constraints and Human Capital Investments in Ecuador," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1143-1154, June.
- Calero, C. & Bedi, A.S. & Sparrow, R.A., 2008. "Remittances, liquidity constraints and human capital investments in Ecuador," ISS Working Papers - General Series 18735, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Sawada, Yasayuki & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Household schooling decisions in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2541, The World Bank.
- Bhalotra, Sonia & Heady, Christopher, 2001.
"Child farm labour : the wealth paradox,"
Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes
24088, The World Bank.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1988.
"Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-income Countries,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 98(393), pages 1148-1170, December.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1986. "Risk, Implicit Contracts and the Family in Rural Areas of Low-Income Countries," Bulletins 7518, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Ranjan, Priya, 1999. "An economic analysis of child labor," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 99-105, July.
- Robert M. Townsend, 1995. "Consumption Insurance: An Evaluation of Risk-Bearing Systems in Low-Income Economies," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 83-102, Summer.
- Dercon, Stefan, 2002.
"Income Risk, Coping Strategies and Safety Nets,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Anjini Kochar, 1999. "Smoothing Consumption by Smoothing Income: Hours-of-Work Responses to Idiosyncratic Agricultural Shocks in Rural India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 50-61, February.
- Basu, Kaushik, 1998.
"Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2027, The World Bank.
- Kaushik Basu, 1999. "Child Labor: Cause, Consequence, and Cure, with Remarks on International Labor Standards," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(3), pages 1083-1119, September.
- Hanan G. Jacoby & Emmanuel Skoufias, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 311-335.
- Denis Cogneau & Rémi Jedwab, 2008.
"Family income and child outcomes: the 1990 cocoa price shock in Cote d’Ivoire,"
DT/2008/05, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
- Denis Cogneau & Remi Jedwab, 2008. "Family Income and Child Outcomes:The 1990 Cocoa Price Shock in Cote d'Ivoire," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 08-13, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 1999.
"Does child labor displace schooling? - evidence on behavioral responses to an enrollment subsidy,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2116, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Wodon, Quentin, 2000. "Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(462), pages 158-175, March.
- Admassie, Assefa, 2002. "Allocation Of Children'S Time Endowment Between Schooling And Work In Rural Ethiopia," Discussion Papers 18716, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
- Beegle, Kathleen & Dehejia, Rajeev H. & Gatti, Roberta, 2006. "Child labor and agricultural shocks," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 80-96, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:18702. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (RePub)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.