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Child Schooling in Peru: Evidence From A Sequential Analysis of School Progression

  • Sarmistha Pal

    (Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University)

Primary enrolment rates are very high in Peru, but so are the failure and drop-out rates, especially beyond the primary level. Thus an analysis of child schooling should take account of the conditional sequence with the previous level and self-selection into the next higher level of schooling. This cannot be done using standard univariate or ordered logit/probit models of school enrolment/grade attainment. This paper applies a unique correlated sequential probit model with unobserved individual specific heterogeneity to determine the nature of school progression at primary, secondary and post-secondary levels in Peru. This entails richer results, argued to be better than the standard static estimates. In particular, parental education, household expenditure, sibling composition and local adult market participation rates are found to affect different levels of schooling differently. While parental education is crucial for child school enrolment at the primary level, sibling composition and household expenditure turn out to be significant for attainment at the secondary level. However, grade repetition at primary and secondary levels and market participation rates are important for a child to move on to the post-secondary levels.

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 0309001.

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Length: 31 pages
Date of creation: 03 Sep 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0309001
Note: Type of Document - ; prepared on IBM PC - PC-TEX/UNIX Sparc TeX; pages: 31 . I have not yet published this piece and would like to get it circulated.
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  1. Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1986. "Birth Spacing and Sibling Inequality: Asymmetric Information within the Family," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 55-76, February.
  2. Jean Dreze & Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1999. "School Participation in Rural India," Working papers 69, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  3. Constantijn Panis, 1994. "The piecewise linear spline transformation," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(18).
  4. Paul Glewwe & Hanan Jacoby, 1994. "Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(3), pages 843-864.
  5. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
  6. Lee A. Lillard & Robert J. Willis, 1994. "Intergenerational Educational Mobility: Effects of Family and State in Malaysia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1126-1166.
  7. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
  8. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1997. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6715, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Singh, Ram D, 1992. "Underinvestment, Low Economic Returns to Education, and the Schooling of Rural Children: Some Evidence from Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 645-64, April.
  10. Birdsall, Nancy, 1985. "Public inputs and child schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 67-86.
  11. Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-67, May.
  12. Behrman, Jere R & Taubman, Paul, 1986. "Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages S121-45, July.
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