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Child Schooling in Peru: Evidence From A Sequential Analysis of School Progression

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  • Sarmistha Pal

    (Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University)

Abstract

Primary enrolment rates are very high in Peru, but so are the failure and drop-out rates, especially beyond the primary level. Thus an analysis of child schooling should take account of the conditional sequence with the previous level and self-selection into the next higher level of schooling. This cannot be done using standard univariate or ordered logit/probit models of school enrolment/grade attainment. This paper applies a unique correlated sequential probit model with unobserved individual specific heterogeneity to determine the nature of school progression at primary, secondary and post-secondary levels in Peru. This entails richer results, argued to be better than the standard static estimates. In particular, parental education, household expenditure, sibling composition and local adult market participation rates are found to affect different levels of schooling differently. While parental education is crucial for child school enrolment at the primary level, sibling composition and household expenditure turn out to be significant for attainment at the secondary level. However, grade repetition at primary and secondary levels and market participation rates are important for a child to move on to the post-secondary levels.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarmistha Pal, 2003. "Child Schooling in Peru: Evidence From A Sequential Analysis of School Progression," Labor and Demography 0309001, EconWPA.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0309001
    Note: Type of Document - ; prepared on IBM PC - PC-TEX/UNIX Sparc TeX; pages: 31 . I have not yet published this piece and would like to get it circulated.
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Constantijn Panis, 1994. "The piecewise linear spline transformation," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(18).
    2. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    3. Dreze, Jean & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2001. "School Participation in Rural India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, February.
    4. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1998. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 39-65.
    5. Lee A. Lillard & Robert J. Willis, 1994. "Intergenerational Educational Mobility: Effects of Family and State in Malaysia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1126-1166.
    6. Paul Glewwe & Hanan Jacoby, 1994. "Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(3), pages 843-864.
    7. Birdsall, Nancy, 1985. "Public inputs and child schooling in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 67-86.
    8. Behrman, Jere R & Taubman, Paul, 1986. "Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(3), pages 121-145, July.
    9. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 1997. "Family size, schooling and child labor in Peru - An empirical analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 387-405.
    10. Ray, Ranjan, 2000. "Child Labor, Child Schooling, and Their Interaction with Adult Labor: Empirical Evidence for Peru and Pakistan," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 347-367, May.
    11. Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1986. "Birth Spacing and Sibling Inequality: Asymmetric Information within the Family," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 55-76, February.
    12. Singh, Ram D, 1992. "Underinvestment, Low Economic Returns to Education, and the Schooling of Rural Children: Some Evidence from Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 645-664, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Manisha Chakrabarty & Sumon Kumar Bhaumik, 2012. "Whither human capital? The woeful tale of transition to tertiary education in India," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(9), pages 835-838, June.
    2. Cardoso, Ana Rute & Verner, Dorte, 2006. "School Drop-Out and Push-Out Factors in Brazil: The Role of Early Parenthood, Child Labor, and Poverty," IZA Discussion Papers 2515, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. repec:bla:rdevec:v:21:y:2017:i:4:p:1158-1177 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Weitzman, Abigail, 2017. "The effects of women's education on maternal health: Evidence from Peru," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 1-9.
    5. Asencios, Roger, 2016. "Rendimiento escolar en el Perú: Análisis secuencial de los resultados de la Evaluación Censal de Estudiantes," Working Papers 2016-005, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    6. Köllner, Sebastian, 2013. "Remittances and educational attainment: Evidence from Tajikistan," Discussion Paper Series 124, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Chair of Economic Order and Social Policy.
    7. SIDDIQUI, Anjum & IRAM, Uzma, 2007. "Socioeconomic Determinants Of School Progression In Pakistan," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 7(2), pages 179-192.
    8. Denice Cavero & Verónica Montalva & José Rodríguez, 2011. "Determinantes socioeconómicos de las transiciones entre niveles educativos: un enfoque sobre género y ruralidad en el Perú," Documentos de Trabajo / Working Papers 2011-309, Departamento de Economía - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
    9. Daisuke Nagakura & Masahito Kobayashi, 2009. "Testing The Sequential Logit Model Against The Nested Logit Model," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 60(3), pages 345-361.
    10. Zeba A. Sathar & Asif Wazir & Maqsood Sadiq, 2013. "Struggling against the Odds of Poverty, Access, and Gender: Secondary Schooling for Girls in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 67-92, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Child schooling; School progression; Resource constraint; Sibling composition; Sequential probit model; Limited dependent variable;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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