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How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained? Evidence from Rural India

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  • Sarmistha Pal

Abstract

There are significant gender differences in child schooling in the Indian states though very few studies explain this gender difference. Unlike most existing studies we take account of the implicit and explicit opportunity costs of schooling and use a bivariate probit model to jointly determine a child's participation in school and market jobs. Results obtained from the World Institute of Development Economics Research (WIDER) villages in West Bengal suggest that indicators of household resources, parental preferences, returns to and opportunity costs of domestic work significantly affect child school enrolment. While household resources have similar effects on enrolment of boys and girls, other arguments tend to explain a part of the observed gender difference. Even after taking account of all possible arguments, there remains a large variation in gender differences in child schooling that cannot be explained by differences in male and female characteristics in our sample.

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  • Sarmistha Pal, 2004. "How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained? Evidence from Rural India," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(2), pages 133-158, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:buecrs:v:56:y:2004:i:2:p:133-158
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8586.2004.00193.x
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    Cited by:

    1. Chandan Jain, 2019. "Analysing Changes in Gender Difference in Learning in Rural India over Time," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 17(4), pages 913-935, December.
    2. Bernhard Ganglmair, 2005. "Intrinsic Competition and the Labor-Schooling Trade-off in Uganda Competition in Child Labor and Schooling Decision Making in Uganda. Evidence from a Bivariate Probit Model," Labor and Demography 0504002, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Sep 2005.
    3. Pal, Sarmistha, 2010. "Public infrastructure, location of private schools and primary school attainment in an emerging economy," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 783-794, October.
    4. Demirel, Merve & Okten, Cagla, 2020. "Gender Gap in Intergenerational Educational Persistence: Can Compulsory Schooling Reduce It?," IZA Discussion Papers 13362, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha & Sharma, Anurag, 2016. "Absence of Altruism? Female Disadvantage in Private School Enrollment in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 105-125.
    6. Kausik Chaudhuri & Susmita Roy, 2009. "Gender gap in educational attainment: evidence from rural India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 215-238.
    7. Wendy Janssens, 2005. "Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 05-017/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 30 Mar 2006.
    8. Ferry Prasetyia, 2019. "The role of local government policy on secondary school enrolment decision in Indonesia," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(2), pages 139-172, June.
    9. Valérie Bérenger & Audrey Verdier†Chouchane, 2016. "Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S2), pages 177-190, October.
    10. repec:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2004-21 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Bérenger Valérie & Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane, 2016. "Working Paper 230 - Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," Working Paper Series 2323, African Development Bank.
    12. Alcott, Benjamin & Rose, Pauline, 2017. "Learning in India’s primary schools: How do disparities widen across the grades?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 42-51.
    13. Michael Clemens, 2004. "The Long Walk to School: International Education Goals in Historical Perspective," Working Papers 37, Center for Global Development.
    14. Amita Majumder & Chayanika Mitra, 2017. "Gender Bias in Education in West Bengal," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(1), pages 173-196, March.
    15. Sarmistha Pal, 2008. "Public Infrastructure, Location of Private Schools and Quality of Schooling in an Emerging Economy," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 08-05, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
    16. Audrey Verdier†Chouchane, 2016. "Introduction: Poverty Issues in South Sudan and Sudan," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S2), pages 125-131, October.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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