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The Gender Gap in Educational Attainment in India: How Much Can Be Explained?

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  • G. Gandhi Kingdon

Abstract

Differential treatment of sons and daughters by parents is a potential explanation of the gender gap in education in developing countries. This study empirically tests this explanation for India using household survey data collected in urban Uttar Pradesh in 1995. We estimate educational enrolment functions and selectivity-corrected educational attainment functions, conditional on enrolment. The gender difference in educational attainment is decomposed into the part that is explained by men and women's differential characteristics and the part that is not so explained (the conventional 'discrimination' component). The analysis suggests that girls face significantly different treatment in the intra-household allocation of education - there is a large unexplained component in the gender gap in schooling attainment. A detailed decomposition exercise attempts to discover the individual factors most responsible for the differential treatment.

Suggested Citation

  • G. Gandhi Kingdon, 2002. "The Gender Gap in Educational Attainment in India: How Much Can Be Explained?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 25-53.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:39:y:2002:i:2:p:25-53
    DOI: 10.1080/00220380412331322741
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Francavilla, Francesca & Giannelli, Gianna Claudia & Grilli, Leonardo, 2013. "Mothers’ Employment and their Children’s Schooling: A Joint Multilevel Analysis for India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 183-195.
    2. Vegard Iversen & Adriaan Kalwij & Arjan Verschoor & Amaresh Dubey, 2014. "Caste Dominance and Economic Performance in Rural India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62(3), pages 423-457.
    3. Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha & Sharma, Anurag, 2016. "Absence of Altruism? Female Disadvantage in Private School Enrollment in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 105-125.
    4. Leonid V. Azarnert, 2009. "Abortion And Human Capital Accumulation: A Contribution To The Understanding Of The Gender Gap In Education," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 56(5), pages 559-579, November.
    5. repec:eee:cysrev:v:79:y:2017:i:c:p:263-273 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Lutfunnahar Begum & Philip J. Grossman & Asadul Islam, 2014. "Parental Attitude and Investment in Children’s Education and Health in Developing Countries," Monash Economics Working Papers 30-14, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    7. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Karamat Ali, 2005. "Bargaining Over Sons' and Daughters' Schooling-Probit Analysis of Household Behavior," HEW 0505002, EconWPA.
    8. Marian Meller & Stephan Litschig, 2016. "Adapting the Supply of Education to the Needs of Girls: Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Rural India," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 51(3), pages 760-802.
    9. Kanjilal-Bhaduri, Sanghamitra & Pastore, Francesco, 2017. "Returns to Education and Female Participation Nexus: Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 11209, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Warunsiri, Sasiwimon & McNown, Robert, 2010. "The Returns to Education in Thailand: A Pseudo-Panel Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 1616-1625, November.
    11. Lopez Boo, Florencia & Canon, Maria Eugenia, 2014. "Reversal of gender gaps in child development: Evidence from young children in India," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 55-59.
    12. Escobal, Javier & Flores, Eva, 2009. "Maternal Migration and Child Well-Being in Peru," MPRA Paper 56463, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Salma Ahmad & Ranjan Ray, 2014. "Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 30(4), pages 111-150, January.
    14. Husain, Zakir, 2010. "Gender disparities in completing school education in India: Analyzing regional variations," MPRA Paper 25748, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Kanjilal-Bhaduri, Sanghamitra & Pastore, Francesco, 2018. "Returns to Education and Female Work Force Participation Nexus: Evidence from India," GLO Discussion Paper Series 162, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    16. repec:eee:injoed:v:56:y:2017:i:c:p:42-51 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Chakraborty, Tanika & Jayaraman, Rajshri, 2016. "School Feeding and Learning Achievement: Evidence from India's Midday Meal Program," IZA Discussion Papers 10086, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Amita Majumder & Chayanika Mitra, 2017. "Gender Bias in Education in West Bengal," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(1), pages 173-196, March.
    19. Shatanjaya Dasgupta, 2016. "Son Preference and Gender Gaps in Child Nutrition: Does the Level of Female Autonomy Matter?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 375-386, May.
    20. Sulayman Al-Qudsi & Asma Al-Qudsi, 2003. "Children's Educational Outcomes under Adverse Labor Market Conditions: Evidence from The West Bank and Gaza," Working Papers 0306, Economic Research Forum, revised 02 2003.
    21. Manuela Mota & Sara Casaca, 2016. "Gender Relations and the Dowry System in India - The Case of Hyderabad," CEsA Working Papers 143, CEsA - Center for African, Asian and Latin American Studies.
    22. Tanika Chakraborty & Rajshri Jayaraman, 2016. "School Feeding and Learning Achievement: Evidence from India's Midday Meal Program," CESifo Working Paper Series 5994, CESifo Group Munich.

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