Birth Spacing and Child Survival: Comparative Evidence from India and Pakistan
In view of higher fertility and mortality rates in Pakistan compared to India, this paper examines the two-way relationship between birth interval and child mortality and compares the behaviour of households in the Indian and Pakistani provinces of Punjab. Birth interval and child survival are modelled here as correlated hazard processes to address the bias generated by the simultaneity between spacing and survival. We find evidence of significant mutual dependence between birth interval and child survival in both samples. We also identify a close correspondence between birth interval and duration of breastfeeding and argue that the duration of breastfeeding is a good instrument of birth spacing in our samples. There are also interesting differences between Indian and Pakistani households with respect to effects of son preference and female literacy. We argue that part of these differences could be explained by differences in religion and state policies in these two neighbouring states.
|Date of creation:||27 Sep 2005|
|Date of revision:|
|Note:||Type of Document - pdf; pages: 60. Revised version|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ashish Garg & Jonathan Morduch, 1998. "Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: Evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 471-493.
- Constantijn Panis, 1994. "The piecewise linear spline transformation," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(18).
- Pal, Sarmistha, 1999. "An Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Rural India: Role of Gender, Income and Other Household Characteristics," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1151-1171, July.
- S. Philip Morgan & Sharon Stash & Herbert L. Smith & Karen Oppenheim Mason, 2002. "Muslim and Non-Muslim Differences in Female Autonomy and Fertility: Evidence from Four Asian Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 28(3), pages 515-537.
- Parish, W.L. & Willis, R.J., 1992.
"Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets: Taiwan Experiences,"
University of Chicago - Economics Research Center
92-8, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
- William Parish & Robert J. Willis, . "Daughters, Education and Family Budgets: Taiwan Experiences," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 92-8a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Becker, Gary S & Lewis, H Gregg, 1973. "On the Interaction between the Quantity and Quality of Children," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(2), pages S279-88, Part II, .
- Pushkar Maitra & Sarmistha Pal, 2004.
"Early Childbirth, Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Recent Evidence from Bangladesh,"
- Pushkar Maitra & Sarmistha Pal, 2007. "Early Childbirth, Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Recent Evidence from Bangladesh," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 07-05, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
- Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha, 2007. "Early Childbirth, Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Recent Evidence from Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 2841, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Panis, Constantijn W. A. & Lillard, Lee A., 1994.
"Health inputs and child mortality: Malaysia,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 455-489.
- Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Lillard, 1994.
"Education, Marriage, and First Conception in Malaysia,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1167-1204.
- Lillard, L.A. & Brien, M.J., 1993. "Education, Marriage and First Conception in Malaysia," Papers 93-16, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:109:y:1994:i:3:p:531-63 is not listed on IDEAS
- Lata Gangadharan & Pushkar Maitra, 2001. "The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Birth in Pakistan," ASARC Working Papers 2001-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1982. "Market Opportunities, Genetic Endowments, and Intrafamily Resource Distribution: Child Survival in Rural India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 803-15, September.
- Horton, Susan, 1988. "Birth Order and Child Nutritional Status: Evidence from the Philippines," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(2), pages 341-54, January.
- Lillard, Lee A., 1993. "Simultaneous equations for hazards : Marriage duration and fertility timing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 189-217, March.
- Kenneth I. Wolpin & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2000. "Natural "Natural Experiments" in Economics," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(4), pages 827-874, December.
- Behrman, Jere R & Knowles, James C, 1999. "Household Income and Child Schooling in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 211-56, May.
- Shireen J. Jejeebhoy & Zeba A. Sathar, 2001. "Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(4), pages 687-712.
- Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Hillard & Linda Waite, . "Cohabitation, Marriage, and Non-Fertility," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 97-5, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Chamberlain, Gary & Griliches, Zvi, 1975. "Unobservables with a Variance-Components Structure: Ability, Schooling, and the Economic Success of Brothers," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 16(2), pages 422-49, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0509010. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.