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Birth Spacing and Child Survival: Comparative Evidence from India and Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Pushkar Maitra

    (Monash University)

  • Sarmistha Pal

    (Brunel University)

Abstract

In view of higher fertility and mortality rates in Pakistan compared to India, this paper examines the two-way relationship between birth interval and child mortality and compares the behaviour of households in the Indian and Pakistani provinces of Punjab. Birth interval and child survival are modelled here as correlated hazard processes to address the bias generated by the simultaneity between spacing and survival. We find evidence of significant mutual dependence between birth interval and child survival in both samples. We also identify a close correspondence between birth interval and duration of breastfeeding and argue that the duration of breastfeeding is a good instrument of birth spacing in our samples. There are also interesting differences between Indian and Pakistani households with respect to effects of son preference and female literacy. We argue that part of these differences could be explained by differences in religion and state policies in these two neighbouring states.

Suggested Citation

  • Pushkar Maitra & Sarmistha Pal, 2005. "Birth Spacing and Child Survival: Comparative Evidence from India and Pakistan," Labor and Demography 0509010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0509010
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 60. Revised version
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Pushkar Maitra & Sarmistha Pal, 2004. "Early Childbirth, Health Inputs and Child Mortality: Recent Evidence from Bangladesh," HEW 0411004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Bhalotra, Sonia & Soest, Arthur van, 2008. "Birth-spacing, fertility and neonatal mortality in India: Dynamics, frailty, and fecundity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 143(2), pages 274-290, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Birth spacing; Child survival; Sibling competition and child replacement effects; Religion and state policy; Correlated hazards models; Simultaneity bias.;

    JEL classification:

    • C41 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General

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