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How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained? Evidence from Rural India

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  • Sarmistha Pal

    (Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University)

Abstract

There are significant gender differences in child schooling in the Indian states though very few studies explain this gender difference. Unlike most existing studies we take account of the implicit and explicit opportunity costs of schooling and use a bivariate probit model to jointly determine child’s participation in school and market jobs. Results obtained from the WIDER villages in West Bengal suggest that indicators of household resources, parental preferences, returns to and opportunity costs of domestic work significantly affect child school enrolment. While household resources have similar effects on enrolment of boys and girls, other arguments tend to explain a part of the observed gender difference. Even after taking account of all possible arguments, there remains a large variation in gender differences in child schooling that cannot be explained by differences in male and female characteristics in our sample.

Suggested Citation

  • Sarmistha Pal, 2003. "How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained? Evidence from Rural India," HEW 0309004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwphe:0309004
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    Cited by:

    1. Audrey Verdier†Chouchane, 2016. "Introduction: Poverty Issues in South Sudan and Sudan," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S2), pages 125-131, October.
    2. Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha & Sharma, Anurag, 2016. "Absence of Altruism? Female Disadvantage in Private School Enrollment in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 105-125.
    3. Manini Ojha, 2022. "Gender gap in schooling: Is there a role for health insurance?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(1), pages 29-54, January.
    4. Wendy Janssens, 2005. "Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 05-017/2, Tinbergen Institute, revised 30 Mar 2006.
    5. Bernhard Ganglmair, 2005. "Intrinsic Competition and the Labor-Schooling Trade-off in Uganda Competition in Child Labor and Schooling Decision Making in Uganda. Evidence from a Bivariate Probit Model," Labor and Demography 0504002, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Sep 2005.
    6. Ferry Prasetyia, 2019. "The role of local government policy on secondary school enrolment decision in Indonesia," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(2), pages 139-172, June.
    7. Krisztina Kis-Katos, 2012. "Gender differences in work-schooling decisions in rural North India," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 491-519, December.
    8. W. Nabiddo & B.L. Yawe & F. Wasswa, 2022. "Education attainment and household education expenditure in Uganda: An empirical investigation," Journal of Economic Policy and Management Issues, JEPMI, vol. 1(1), pages 21-49.
    9. Reshmi Sengupta & Debasis Rooj, 2018. "Factors Affecting Gender Disparity in Muslim Education in India," Journal of Development Policy and Practice, , vol. 3(1), pages 87-113, January.
    10. Demirel-Derebasoglu, Merve & Okten, Cagla, 2020. "Gender Gap in Intergenerational Educational Persistence: Can Compulsory Schooling Reduce It?," IZA Discussion Papers 13362, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Merve Demirel-Derebasoglu & Cagla Okten, 2022. "Gender Gap in Intergenerational Educational Persistence: Can Compulsory Schooling Reduce It?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 41(5), pages 2037-2083, October.
    12. Pal, Sarmistha, 2010. "Public infrastructure, location of private schools and primary school attainment in an emerging economy," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 783-794, October.
    13. Kausik Chaudhuri & Susmita Roy, 2009. "Gender gap in educational attainment: evidence from rural India," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 215-238.
    14. repec:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2004-21 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Bérenger Valérie & Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane, 2016. "Working Paper 230 - Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," Working Paper Series 2323, African Development Bank.
    16. Alcott, Benjamin & Rose, Pauline, 2017. "Learning in India’s primary schools: How do disparities widen across the grades?," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 42-51.
    17. Sarmistha Pal, 2008. "Public Infrastructure, Location of Private Schools and Quality of Schooling in an Emerging Economy," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 08-05, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
    18. Michael Clemens, 2004. "The Long Walk to School: International Education Goals in Historical Perspective," Working Papers 37, Center for Global Development.
    19. Amita Majumder & Chayanika Mitra, 2017. "Gender Bias in Education in West Bengal," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 15(1), pages 173-196, March.
    20. Chandan Jain, 2019. "Analysing Changes in Gender Difference in Learning in Rural India over Time," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 17(4), pages 913-935, December.
    21. Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha & Sharma, Anurag, 2011. "Reforms, Growth and Persistence of Gender Gap: Recent Evidence from Private School Enrolment in India," IZA Discussion Papers 6135, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    22. Valérie Bérenger & Audrey Verdier†Chouchane, 2016. "Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 28(S2), pages 177-190, October.
    23. Subha Mani & John Hoddinott & John Strauss, 2009. "Determinants of Schooling Outcomes: Empirical Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Fordham Economics Discussion Paper Series dp2009-03, Fordham University, Department of Economics.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender differences; Child schooling and child labour; Opportunity costs of schooling; Parental Preferences; Bivariate Probit; Oaxaca Decomposition. : Gender differences; Child schooling and child labour; Opportunity costs of schooling; Parental Preferences; Bivariate Probit; Oaxaca Decomposition.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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