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Determinants of Schooling in Egypt: The Role of Gender and Rural/Urban Residence


  • Diane Dancer
  • Anu Rammohan


In this paper, we examine if there are gender differences in schooling attainment and the extent to which these differences are exacerbated for rural children in Egypt. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, our estimation results find strong support for the hypothesis that being male and living in urban areas significantly improves child schooling. We show that relative to a female child who is “never enrolled” in school, a male child is over twice as likely to be currently attending school, and over two-and-a-half times more likely to have some schooling. These positive effects are particularly strong for rural male children. There are also regional variations, with a child (male or female) living in Upper Rural Egypt having a significantly lower likelihood of being currently enrolled. Finally, our estimation results point to large positive effects of father's education on the probability of current enrolment for all children. Mother's education, however, improves only the likelihood of current enrolment for female children, with no significant effect on male children.

Suggested Citation

  • Diane Dancer & Anu Rammohan, 2007. "Determinants of Schooling in Egypt: The Role of Gender and Rural/Urban Residence," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 171-195.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oxdevs:v:35:y:2007:i:2:p:171-195
    DOI: 10.1080/13600810701322041

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mark Montgomery & Monica Grant & Barbara Mensch & Rania Roushdy, 2005. "Children's Schooling in Developing-Country Slums: A Comparison of Egypt and India," Department of Economics Working Papers 05-07, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
    2. Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
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