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Gender Bias, Investments in Children, and Bequests

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  • Davies, James B
  • Zhang, Junsen

Abstract

The impacts of pure sex preference and differential earnings opportunities by gender on investments in children are modelled with altruism. If bequest constraints do not bind human investments are privately efficient, with the higher-earning gender receiving more education. Education does not depend on parental wealth. The gender differential in bequests is ambiguous, however, even in this case. When bequest constraints bind education may depend on wealth and it is also possible for the gender with better earnings opportunities to get less education. The model is tested with data from Philippine villages where bequest constraints are generally nonbinding. The schooling differential slightly favors daughters. Estimated bequest behavior, however, reflects pure sex preference in terms of our model. Copyright 1995 by Economics Department of the University of Pennsylvania and the Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Davies, James B & Zhang, Junsen, 1995. "Gender Bias, Investments in Children, and Bequests," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 795-818, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:ier:iecrev:v:36:y:1995:i:3:p:795-818
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Masterson, Thomas, 2012. "An Empirical Analysis of Gender Bias in Education Spending in Paraguay," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 583-593.
    2. Jungmin Lee, 2008. "Sibling size and investment in children’s education: an asian instrument," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(4), pages 855-875, October.
    3. repec:eee:jcecon:v:45:y:2017:i:2:p:261-270 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Zhang, Junsen & Zhang, Jie & Li, Tianyou, 1999. "Gender bias and economic development in an endogenous growth model," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 497-525, August.
    5. Maitra, Pushkar & Pal, Sarmistha & Sharma, Anurag, 2016. "Absence of Altruism? Female Disadvantage in Private School Enrollment in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 105-125.
    6. Lorelei Crisologo-Mendoza; & Dirk Van de gaer, 1997. "Population Growth and Customary Law on Land: The Case of Cordillera Villages in the Philippines," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n761197, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    7. Amy Farmer & Andrew Horowitz, 2010. "Mobility, information, and bequest: The “other side” of the equal division puzzle," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(1), pages 121-138, January.
    8. Mussa, Richard, 2009. "Household economic status, schooling costs, and schooling bias against non-biological children in Malawi," MPRA Paper 15855, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 Jun 2009.
    9. Marian Meller & Stephan Litschig, 2016. "Adapting the Supply of Education to the Needs of Girls: Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Rural India," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 51(3), pages 760-802.
    10. Jonna P. Estudillo & JAgnes R. Quisumbing & JoKeijiro Otsuka, 2001. "Gender Differences in Land Inheritance and Schooling Investments in the Rural Philippines," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 77(1), pages 130-143.
    11. Michael Leung & Junsen Zhang, 2008. "Gender preference, biased sex ratio, and parental investments in single-child households," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 91-110, June.
    12. Lutfunnahar Begum & Philip J. Grossman & Asadul Islam, 2014. "Identifying Gender Bias in Parental Attitude: An Experimental Approach," Monash Economics Working Papers 32-14, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    13. Kumar, Alok, 2013. "Preference based vs. market based discrimination: Implications for gender differentials in child labor and schooling," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 64-68.
    14. Edwin S. Wong, 2013. "Gender preference and transfers from parents to children: an inter-regional comparison," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 61-80, January.
    15. Ono, Hiroshi, 2004. "Are sons and daughters substitutable?: Allocation of family resources in contemporary Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 143-160, June.
    16. Van Campenhout, Bjorn, 2016. "Fertility, Agricultural Labor Supply, and Production: Instrumental Variable Evidence from Uganda," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 45(03), pages 581-607, December.
    17. Li, Wenchao & Yi, Junjian, 2015. "The Competitive Earning Incentive for Sons: Evidence from Migration in China," IZA Discussion Papers 9214, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Chew, Soo Hong & Yi, Junjian & Zhang, Junsen & Zhong, Songfa, 2017. "Risk Aversion and Son Preference: Experimental Evidence from Chinese Twin Parents," IZA Discussion Papers 10519, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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