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Gender Differences in Schooling Attainment: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth Order Effects

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  • Dancer, Diane M.
  • Rammohan, Anu
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    This paper uses a using a nationally representative dataset to show that gender, birth order and sibling characteristics have significant effects on the schooling attainment of Egyptian children. Our analysis finds that relative to a male child, female and rural children are not only less likely to have the right schooling for age, but birth order and sibling characteristics also affect these two groups more adversely. Our empirical results show that schooling outcomes are better for earlier born (lower birth order) children, particularly for females and rural children. For example, a female child who is third in the birth order is approximately 40% less likely to have attained the right schooling for age, worsening with each increase in birth order. However, male and urban children are unaffected by birth order and sibling characteristics, the only exception being male children born sixth or higher in the birth order. Furthermore, we see that an increase in sibship size is associated with lower schooling attainment for the last born school-age child across all our samples. Finally, we see that with the exception of rural females, the sibling size effect is somewhat mitigated for the oldest school-age child having younger sisters rather than brothers

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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2123/7643
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    Paper provided by University of Sydney, School of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 5.

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    Date of creation: Jul 2004
    Handle: RePEc:syd:wpaper:2123/7643
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    Sydney, NSW 2006

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    Web page: http://sydney.edu.au/arts/economics
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    1. Kathryn Anderson & Elizabeth King & Yan Wang, 2003. "Market Returns, Transfers and Demand for Schooling in Malaysia, 1976-89," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(3), pages 1-28.
    2. Haddad, Lawrence & Hoddinott, John & Alderman, Harold & DEC, 1994. "Intrahousehold resource allocation : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1255, The World Bank.
    3. Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Coulombe, Harold, 1997. "Child labor and schooling in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1844, The World Bank.
    4. Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan, 1995. "Human resources: Empirical modeling of household and family decisions," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 34, pages 1883-2023 Elsevier.
    5. World Bank, 2001. "World Development Report 2000/2001," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11856, September.
    6. Dreze, Jean & Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2001. "School Participation in Rural India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 1-24, February.
    7. William L. Parish & Robert J. Willis, 1993. "Daughters, Education, and Family Budgets Taiwan Experiences," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 863-898.
    8. Rohini Pande, 2003. "Selective gender differences in childhood nutrition and immunization in rural India: The role of siblings," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 40(3), pages 395-418, August.
    9. Psacharopoulos, George & Arriagada, Ana Maria, 1989. "The Determinants of Early Age Human Capital Formation: Evidence from Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(4), pages 683-708, July.
    10. Robert Kaestner, 1997. "Are Brothers Really Better? Sibling Sex Composition and Educational Achievement Revisited," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(2), pages 250-284.
    11. Mark R. Rosenzweig & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1994. "Are There Increasing Returns to the Intergenerational Production of Human Capital? Maternal Schooling and Child Intellectual Achievement," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 670-693.
    12. Peter H. Lindert, 1977. "Sibling Position and Achievement," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 12(2), pages 198-219.
    13. Aysit Tansel & Ayadim Deniz Gungor, 1999. "Schooling Investments and Gender Gap in Schooling in the MENA Countries: An International Perspective," Working Papers 9939, Economic Research Forum, revised Dec 1999.
    14. Alderman, Harold & King, Elizabeth M., 1998. "Gender differences in parental investment in education," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 453-468, December.
    15. Thomas Bauer & Ira N. Gang, 1999. "Siblings, Their Sex Composition and Educational Attainment in Germany," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 68(2), pages 215-221.
    16. Grootaert, Christiaan, 1998. "Child labor in Cote d'Ivoire: incidence and determinants," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1905, The World Bank.
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