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The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Birth in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Lata Gangadharan
  • Pushkar Maitra

Abstract

A rapid rise in women's education levels, an increase in the age at marriage and an increase in the age at which they have their Þrst child are key features of demographic transition in any country. Education is considered to be an essential component in this process because increases in educational attainment are likely to significantly affect both age at marriage and the duration between marriage and first birth - in particular increasing both the age at marriage and the time to Þrst child. This paper uses individual level unit record data from Pakistan to examine the effect of education on the age at marriage and on the duration between marriage and Þrst birth. We jointly estimate educational attainment, age at marriage and duration between marriage and first birth allowing for household level unobserved heterogeneity. Our estimation results show that ignoring correlation between the heterogeneity terms in the three main variables of interest results in inconsistent estimates. We find that educated women marry signiÞcantly later but education does not have any impact on the duration between marriage and first birth.

Suggested Citation

  • Lata Gangadharan & Pushkar Maitra, 2001. "The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Birth in Pakistan," ASARC Working Papers 2001-04, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  • Handle: RePEc:pas:asarcc:2001-04
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/asarc/pdf/papers/2001/WP2001_04.pdf
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    File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/asarc/pdf/papers/2001/WP2001_04a.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gangadharan, Lata & Maitra, Pushkar, 2001. "Two Aspects of Fertility Behavior in South Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(1), pages 183-200, October.
    2. Zeba A. sathar & Shahnaz Kazi, 1989. "Female Employment and Fertility: Further Investigation of an Ambivalent Association," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 175-194.
    3. Zeba A. Sathar & M. Framurz Kiani, 1998. "Some Consequences of Rising Age at Marriage in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 541-556.
    4. Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Hillard & Linda Waite, "undated". "Cohabitation, Marriage, and Non-Fertility," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 97-5, Chicago - Population Research Center.
    5. Anderson, Kathryn H. & Hill, M. Anne & Butler, J. S., 1987. "Age at marriage in Malaysia : A hazard model of marriage timing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 223-234, August.
    6. Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Lillard, 1994. "Education, Marriage, and First Conception in Malaysia," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(4), pages 1167-1204.
    7. Subbarao, K & Raney, Laura, 1995. "Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 105-128, October.
    8. Zeba A. Sathar & M. Framurz K. Kiani, 1986. "Delayed Marriages in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 535-552.
    9. Lillard, Lee A., 1993. "Simultaneous equations for hazards : Marriage duration and fertility timing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 189-217, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pushkar Maitra & Sarmistha Pal, 2004. "Birth Spacing and Child Survival: Comparative Evidence from India and Pakistan," Labor and Demography 0403023, EconWPA.
    2. Azeema Faizunnisa & Minhaj Ul Haque, 2003. "Adolescent Reproductive Health: The Role of Agency and Autonomy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 569-583.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Education; Age at Marriage; Age at First Birth; Asia; Pakistan.;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • C41 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies
    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models

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