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The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Birth in Pakistan

  • Lata Gangadharan
  • Pushkar Maitra

A rapid rise in women's education levels, an increase in the age at marriage and an increase in the age at which they have their Þrst child are key features of demographic transition in any country. Education is considered to be an essential component in this process because increases in educational attainment are likely to significantly affect both age at marriage and the duration between marriage and first birth - in particular increasing both the age at marriage and the time to Þrst child. This paper uses individual level unit record data from Pakistan to examine the effect of education on the age at marriage and on the duration between marriage and Þrst birth. We jointly estimate educational attainment, age at marriage and duration between marriage and first birth allowing for household level unobserved heterogeneity. Our estimation results show that ignoring correlation between the heterogeneity terms in the three main variables of interest results in inconsistent estimates. We find that educated women marry signiÞcantly later but education does not have any impact on the duration between marriage and first birth.

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Paper provided by The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre in its series ASARC Working Papers with number 2001-04.

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Date of creation: Feb 2001
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Handle: RePEc:pas:asarcc:2001-04
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  1. Anderson, Kathryn H. & Hill, M. Anne & Butler, J. S., 1987. "Age at marriage in Malaysia : A hazard model of marriage timing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 223-234, August.
  2. Lillard, L.A. & Brien, M.J., 1993. "Education, Marriage and First Conception in Malaysia," Papers 93-16, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
  3. Gangadharan, Lata & Maitra, Pushkar, 2001. "Two Aspects of Fertility Behavior in South Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50(1), pages 183-200, October.
  4. Zeba A. Sathar & M. Framurz Kiani, 1998. "Some Consequences of Rising Age at Marriage in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 541-556.
  5. Subbarao, K & Raney, Laura, 1995. "Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(1), pages 105-28, October.
  6. Michael J. Brien & Lee A. Hillard & Linda Waite, . "Cohabitation, Marriage, and Non-Fertility," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 97-5, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  7. Zeba A. sathar & Shahnaz Kazi, 1989. "Female Employment and Fertility: Further Investigation of an Ambivalent Association," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 175-194.
  8. Lillard, Lee A., 1993. "Simultaneous equations for hazards : Marriage duration and fertility timing," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 189-217, March.
  9. Zeba A. Sathar & M. Framurz K. Kiani, 1986. "Delayed Marriages in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 25(4), pages 535-552.
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