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The Effect of Gender Differences in Primary School Access, Type, and Quality on the Decision to Enroll in Rural Pakistan

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  • Lloyd, Cynthia B
  • Mete, Cem
  • Sathar, Zeba A

Abstract

The article explores the effect of primary school access, type (public vs. private), and quality on parents' decision to enroll their children in rural Pakistan using a 1997 survey. The authors find that, for girls, living in a village with an all-girls' public school makes a significant difference in the likelihood of enrollment. The quality of the girls' school is also a significant factor influencing parents' decision to enroll their girls. Boys' overall levels of enrollment are unaffected by access and quality; parents, however, are more likely to select private schooling for their boys and girls when a private school is locally available. In contrast to earlier findings for urban Pakistan, we do not find that a greater availability of private school alternatives would significantly increase overall primary school enrollment; instead, it would primarily affect the distribution of enrollment between the private and public sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Lloyd, Cynthia B & Mete, Cem & Sathar, Zeba A, 2005. "The Effect of Gender Differences in Primary School Access, Type, and Quality on the Decision to Enroll in Rural Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(3), pages 685-710, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:y:2005:v:53:i:3:p:685-710
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/427042
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    1. Gertler, Paul & Glewwe, Paul, 1990. "The willingness to pay for education in developing countries : Evidence from rural Peru," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 251-275, August.
    2. Shahnaz Hamid, 1993. "A Micro Analysis of Demand-side Determinants of Schooling in Urban Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 32(4), pages 713-723.
    3. Gertler, Paul & Locay, Luis & Sanderson, Warren, 1987. "Are user fees regressive? : The welfare implications of health care financing proposals in Peru," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 67-88.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paulo Bastos & Nicolas L. Bottan & Julian Cristia, 2017. "Access to Preprimary Education and Progression in Primary School: Evidence from Rural Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(3), pages 521-547.
    2. Hamna Ahmed & Sahar Amjad & Masooma Habib & Syed Ahsan Shah, 2013. "Determinants of School Choice:Evidence from Rural Punjab, Pakistan," CREB Working papers 1-2013, Centre for Research in Economics and Business, The Lahore School of Economics, revised 2013.
    3. Marine De Talance, 2017. "Quality Perceptions and School Choice in Rural Pakistan," Working Papers hal-01663029, HAL.
    4. Nazli, Hina & Haider, Syed Hamza & Hausladen, Stephanie & Sheik, Asjad Tariq & Shafiq, Hassan & Shahzad, Saqib & Mehmood, Amina & Shahzad, Asma & Whitney, Edward, 2012. "Pakistan Rural Household Panel Survey 2012 (Round 1): Household characteristics:," PSSP working papers 8, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. David K. Evans & Arkadipta Ghosh, 2008. "Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World," Working Papers WR-587, RAND Corporation.
    6. Monazza Aslam, 2003. "The Determinants of Student Achievement in Government and Private Schools in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 841-876.
    7. Michael Lokshin & Thomas A. Mroz, 2003. "Gender and poverty : a life cycle approach to the analysis of the differences in gender outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3153, The World Bank.
    8. Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, 2010. "Who are the children going to school in Urban Punjab (Pakistan)?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 442-465, May.
    9. David K. Evans & Arkadipta Ghosh, 2008. "Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World," Working Papers 587, RAND Corporation.
    10. Asadullah, Niaz & Wahhaj, Zaki, 2012. "Going to School in Purdah: Female Schooling, Mobility Norms and Madrasas in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 7059, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. repec:pid:journl:v:56:y:2017:i:3:p:249-264 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Felipe Barrera-Osorio & David S. Blakeslee & Matthew Hoover & Leigh Linden & Dhushyanth Raju & Stephen P. Ryan, 2017. "Delivering Education to the Underserved Through a Public-Private Partnership Program in Pakistan," NBER Working Papers 23870, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Bisma Haseeb Khan & Sahar Amjad Shaikh, 2013. "Analyzing the Market for Shadow Education in Pakistan: Does Private Tuition Affect the Learning Gap between Private and Public Schools?," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 129-160, September.
    14. Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz, 2006. "A dime a day : the possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4066, The World Bank.
    15. Zeba A. Sathar & Asif Wazir & Maqsood Sadiq, 2013. "Struggling against the Odds of Poverty, Access, and Gender: Secondary Schooling for Girls in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 67-92, September.
    16. Lloyd, Cynthia B. & Mete, Cem & Grant, Monica J., 2009. "The implications of changing educational and family circumstances for children's grade progression in rural Pakistan: 1997-2004," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 152-160, February.
    17. Marine de Talancé, 2016. "Quality perceptions and school choice in rural Pakistan," Working Papers DT/2016/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    18. Alok Kumar & Emma Underhill, 2014. "Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs," Department Discussion Papers 1402, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    19. Li, Li & Liu, Haoming, 2014. "Primary school availability and middle school education in rural China," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 24-40.
    20. World Bank, 2005. "Pakistan : Country Gender Assessment, Bridging the Gender Gap, Opportunities and Challenges," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8453, The World Bank.
    21. Hamna Ahmed & Sahar Amjad Sheikh, 2014. "Determinants of School Choice: Evidence from Rural Punjab, Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 19(1), pages 1-30, Jan-June.
    22. Behrman, Jere R. & Ross, David & Sabot, Richard, 2008. "Improving quality versus increasing the quantity of schooling: Estimates of rates of return from rural Pakistan," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1-2), pages 94-104, February.

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