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Students today, teachers tomorrow: Identifying constraints on the provision of education

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  • Andrabi, Tahir
  • Das, Jishnu
  • Khwaja, Asim Ijaz

Abstract

With an estimated one hundred fifteen million children not attending primary school in the developing world, increasing access to education is critical. This paper highlights a supply-side factor – the availability of low-cost teachers – and the resulting ability of the market to offer affordable education. We first show that private schools are three times more likely to emerge in villages with government girls' secondary schools (GSSs). Identification is obtained by using official school construction guidelines as an instrument for the presence of GSSs. In contrast, private school presence shows little or no relationship with girls' primary or boys' primary and secondary government schools. In support of a supply-channel, we then show that, villages which received a GSS have over twice as many educated women, and private school teachers' wages are 27% lower in these villages. In an environment with low female education and mobility, GSSs substantially increase the local supply of skilled women lowering wages locally and allowing the market to offer affordable education. These findings highlight the prominent role of women as teachers in facilitating educational access and resonate with similar historical evidence from developed economies. The students of today are the teachers of tomorrow.

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  • Andrabi, Tahir & Das, Jishnu & Khwaja, Asim Ijaz, 2013. "Students today, teachers tomorrow: Identifying constraints on the provision of education," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 1-14.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:pubeco:v:100:y:2013:i:c:p:1-14
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2012.12.003
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    2. Gopalkrishnan Iyer & Chris Counihan, 2018. "When a Right Goes Wrong: The Unintended Consequences of India's Right to Education Act," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 367-379, October.
    3. Noury, Abdul G. & Speciale, Biagio, 2016. "Social constraints and women's education: Evidence from Afghanistan under radical religious rule," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 821-841.
    4. Harounan Kazianga & Leigh Linden & Ali Protik & Matt Sloan, 2016. "The Medium-Term Impacts of Girl-Friendly Schools: Seven-Year Evidence from School Construction in Burkina Faso," Development Working Papers 406, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 11 Nov 2016.
    5. Sabrin A. Beg & Adrienne M. Lucas & Waqas Halim & Umar Saif, 2019. "Engaging Teachers with Technology Increased Achievement, Bypassing Teachers Did Not," NBER Working Papers 25704, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Dana Burde & Leigh L. Linden, 2013. "Bringing Education to Afghan Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Village-Based Schools," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(3), pages 27-40, July.
    7. Fletcher, Erin K. & Pande, Rohini & Troyer Moore, Charity, 2017. "Women and Work in India: Descriptive Evidence and a Review of Potential Policies," Working Paper Series rwp18-004, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    8. Muhammad Jehangir Khan, 2019. "School Quality and Parental Schooling Decisions for Their Children: Public and Private Schools in Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 58(2), pages 177-202.
    9. Mukhopadhyay, Abhiroop & Sahoo, Soham, 2016. "Does access to secondary education affect primary schooling? Evidence from India," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 124-142.
    10. M. Niaz Asadullah & Antonio Savoia & Kunal Sen, 0. "Will South Asia Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030? Learning from the MDGs Experience," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-25.
    11. Dennis Epple & Richard E. Romano & Miguel Urquiola, 2017. "School Vouchers: A Survey of the Economics Literature," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(2), pages 441-492, June.
    12. Tahir Andrabi & Jishnu Das & Asim Ijaz Khwaja, 2015. "Delivering education: a pragmatic framework for improving education in low-income countries," Chapters, in: Pauline Dixon & Steve Humble & Chris Counihan (ed.), Handbook of International Development and Education, chapter 6, pages 85-130, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Jacoby, Hanan G. & Mansuri, Ghazala, 2015. "Crossing boundaries: How social hierarchy impedes economic mobility," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 135-154.
    14. Karthik Muralidharan & Venkatesh Sundararaman, 2013. "Contract Teachers: Experimental Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 19440, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Isaac M. Mbiti, 2016. "The Need for Accountability in Education in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 109-132, Summer.
    16. M. Niaz Asadullah, 2016. "Do Pro-Poor Schools Reach Out to the Poor? Location Choice of BRAC and ROSC Schools in Bangladesh," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 49(4), pages 432-452, December.
    17. Hugo Reis, 2020. "Girls' Schooling Choices And Home Production: Evidence From Pakistan," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 61(2), pages 783-819, May.
    18. M. Niaz Asadullah & Antonio Savoia & Kunal Sen, 2020. "Will South Asia Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030? Learning from the MDGs Experience," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 152(1), pages 165-189, November.
    19. Masuda, Kazuya & Yamauchi, Chikako, 2018. "The Effects of Universal Secondary Education Program Accompanying Public-Private Partnership on Students' Access, Sorting and Achievement: Evidence from Uganda," CEI Working Paper Series 2018-4, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.

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