IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iab/iabdpa/201817.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Do startups provide employment opportunities for disadvantaged workers?

Author

Listed:
  • Fackler, Daniel

    (Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH))

  • Fuchs, Michaela

    (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)

  • Hölscher, Lisa

    (Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH))

  • Schnabel, Claus

    (IZA)

Abstract

"This paper analyzes whether startups offer job opportunities to workers potentially facing labor market problems. It compares the hiring patterns of startups and incumbents in the period 2003 to 2014 using administrative linked employer-employee data for Germany that allow to take the complete employment biographies of newly hired workers into account. The results indicate that young plants are more likely than incumbents to hire older and foreign applicants as well as workers who have instable employment biographies, come from unemployment or outside the labor force, or were affected by a plant closure. However, an analysis of entry wages reveals that disadvantageous worker characteristics come along with higher wage penalties in startups than in incumbents. Therefore, even if startups provide employment opportunities for certain groups of disadvantaged workers, the quality of these jobs in terms of initial remuneration seems to be low." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))

Suggested Citation

  • Fackler, Daniel & Fuchs, Michaela & Hölscher, Lisa & Schnabel, Claus, 2018. "Do startups provide employment opportunities for disadvantaged workers?," IAB-Discussion Paper 201817, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  • Handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:201817
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doku.iab.de/discussionpapers/2018/dp1718.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Claudio Michelacci & Vincenzo Quadrini, 2005. "Borrowing from Employees: Wage Dynamics with Financial Constraints," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 360-369, 04/05.
    2. Emin Dinlersoz & Henry Hyatt & Hubert Janicki, 2019. "Who Works for Whom? Worker Sorting in a Model of Entrepreneurship with Heterogeneous Labor Markets," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 34, pages 244-266, October.
    3. Emin Dinlersoz & Henry Hyatt & Hubert Janicki, 2019. "Who Works for Whom? Worker Sorting in a Model of Entrepreneurship with Heterogeneous Labor Markets," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 34, pages 244-266, October.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie & Javier Miranda, 2017. "Taking the Leap: The Determinants of Entrepreneurs Hiring Their First Employee," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 3-34, February.
    5. Udo Brixy & Susanne Kohaut & Claus Schnabel, 2007. "Do Newly Founded Firms Pay Lower Wages? First Evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 161-171, June.
    6. P. A. Geroski & José Mata & Pedro Portugal, 2010. "Founding conditions and the survival of new firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 510-529, May.
    7. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Establishment exits in Germany: the role of size and age," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 683-700, October.
    8. Michael Fritsch & Udo Brizy, 2004. "European Data Watch: The Establishment File of the German Social Insurance Statistcs," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 124(1), pages 183-190.
    9. Tanja Hethey-Maier & Johannes F. Schmieder, 2013. "Does the Use of Worker Flows Improve the Analysis of Establishment Turnover? Evidence from German Administrative Data," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 133(4), pages 477-510.
    10. Bernd Fitzenberger & Aderonke Osikominu & Robert Völter, 2006. "Imputation Rules to Improve the Education Variable in the IAB Employment Subsample," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 126(3), pages 405-436.
    11. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Investigating the anatomy of the employment effect of new business formation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(2), pages 349-377.
    12. repec:iab:iabfda:201603(en is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Claus Schnabel & Susanne Kohaut & Udo Brixy, 2011. "Employment stability in newly founded firms: a matching approach using linked employer–employee data from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 85-100, January.
    14. Scott Shane, 2009. "Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 141-149, August.
    15. Gartner, Hermann, 2005. "The imputation of wages above the contribution limit with the German IAB employment sample," FDZ Methodenreport 200502_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    16. Michael Roach & Henry Sauermann, 2015. "Founder or Joiner? The Role of Preferences and Context in Shaping Different Entrepreneurial Interests," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(9), pages 2160-2184, September.
    17. Kristina Nyström & Gulzat Elvung, 2014. "New firms and labor market entrants: Is there a wage penalty for employment in new firms?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 399-410, August.
    18. Schmucker, Alexandra & Seth, Stefan & Ludsteck, Johannes & Eberle, Johanna & Ganzer, Andreas, 2016. "Betriebs-Historik-Panel 1975-2014 (Establishment History Panel 1975-2014)," FDZ Datenreport. Documentation on Labour Market Data 201603_de, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    19. Michael Dahl & Toke Reichstein, 2007. "Are You Experienced? Prior Experience and the Survival of New Organizations," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(5), pages 497-511.
    20. Kaas Leo & Manger Christian, 2012. "Ethnic Discrimination in Germany’s Labour Market: A Field Experiment," German Economic Review, De Gruyter, vol. 13(1), pages 1-20, February.
    21. Fritsch, Michael & Weyh, Antje, 2004. "How large are the direct employment effects of new businesses? An empirical investigation," Freiberg Working Papers 2004/05, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    22. Andrea Weber & Christine Zulehner, 2010. "Female Hires and the Success of Start-Up Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(2), pages 358-361, May.
    23. P. A. Geroski & José Mata & Pedro Portugal, 2010. "Founding conditions and the survival of new firms," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 510-529, May.
    24. Michaela Fuchs & Antje Weyh, 2010. "The determinants of job creation and destruction: plant-level evidence for Eastern and Western Germany," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 37(4), pages 425-444, November.
    25. Rocha, Vera & van Praag, Mirjam C. & Folta, Timothy B. & Carneiro, Anabela, 2016. "Entrepreneurial Choices of Initial Human Capital Endowments and New Venture Success," IZA Discussion Papers 9919, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    26. Schmucker, Alexandra & Seth, Stefan & Ludsteck, Johannes & Eberle, Johanna & Ganzer, Andreas, 2016. "Establishment History Panel 1975-2014," FDZ Datenreport. Documentation on Labour Market Data 201603_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    27. Charlie Karlsson & Börje Johansson & Roger R. Stough (ed.), 2012. "Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14810.
    28. Andrea Weber & Christine Zulehner, 2014. "Competition And Gender Prejudice: Are Discriminatory Employers Doomed To Fail?," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 492-521, April.
    29. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
    30. Audretsch, David B. & van Leeuwen, George & Menkveld, Bert & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Market dynamics in the Netherlands: Competition policy and the role of small firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 795-821, April.
    31. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, December.
    32. Kristina Nyström & Gulzat Zhetibaeva Elvung, 2015. "New Firms as Employers: The Wage Penalty for Voluntary and Involuntary Job Switchers," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 29(4), pages 348-366, December.
    33. Paige Ouimet & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2011. "Who Works for Startups? The Relation between Firm Age, Employee Age, and Growth," Working Papers 11-31, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    34. Andreas Koch & Jochen Späth & Harald Strotmann, 2013. "The role of employees for post-entry firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 733-755, October.
    35. repec:iab:iabfme:200502(en is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 455-488, June.
    37. Fackler, Daniel & Hank, Eva, 2016. "Who buffers income losses after job displacement? The role of alternative income sources, the family, and the state," IWH Discussion Papers 28/2016, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    38. repec:iab:iabfda:201604(en is not listed on IDEAS
    39. Kristina Nyström, 2012. "Labor mobility and entrepreneurship: who do new firms employ?," Chapters, in: Charlie Karlsson & Börje Johansson & Roger R. Stough (ed.), Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance, chapter 5, pages 102-114, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    40. repec:iab:iabfme:200503(en is not listed on IDEAS
    41. Daniel Fackler & Eva Hank, 2016. "Who Buffers Income Losses after Job Displacement? The Role of Alternative Income Sources, the Family, and the State," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 863, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    42. Alex Coad & Kristian Nielsen & Bram Timmermans, 2017. "My first employee: an empirical investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 25-45, January.
    43. Antoni, Manfred & Ganzer, Andreas & Vom Berge, Philipp, 2016. "Sample of integrated labour market biographies (SIAB) 1975-2014," FDZ Datenreport. Documentation on Labour Market Data 201604_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    44. Michael S. Dahl & Steven Klepper, 2015. "Whom do new firms hire?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(4), pages 819-836.
    45. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
    46. John Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2013. "Who Creates Jobs? Small versus Large versus Young," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 347-361, May.
    47. Charles Brown & James L. Medoff, 2003. "Firm Age and Wages," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(3), pages 677-698, July.
    48. Ouimet, Paige & Zarutskie, Rebecca, 2014. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(3), pages 386-407.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bellmann, Lisa & Brixy, Udo, 2018. "Hiring by start-ups and regional labor supply," IAB-Discussion Paper 201818, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    2. Christian Merkl & Heiko Stüber, 2021. "Wage and Employment Cyclicalities at the Establishment Level," CESifo Working Paper Series 9283, CESifo.
    3. Daniel Fackler & Lisa Hölscher & Claus Schnabel & Antje Weyh, 2022. "Does working at a start-up pay off?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(4), pages 2211-2233, April.
    4. Merkl, Christian & Stüber, Heiko, 2024. "Wage and employment cyclicalities at the establishment level," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Daniel Fackler & Lisa Hölscher & Claus Schnabel & Antje Weyh, 2022. "Does working at a start-up pay off?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(4), pages 2211-2233, April.
    2. Bellmann, Lisa & Brixy, Udo, 2018. "Hiring by start-ups and regional labor supply," IAB-Discussion Paper 201818, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    3. Kristina Nyström, 2021. "Working for an entrepreneur: heaven or hell?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 919-931, February.
    4. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2013. "Establishment exits in Germany: the role of size and age," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 683-700, October.
    5. Dorner, Matthias & Fryges, Helmut & Schopen, Kathrin, 2017. "Wages in high-tech start-ups – Do academic spin-offs pay a wage premium?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 1-18.
    6. Brixy, Udo & Murmann, Martin, 2016. "The growth and human capital structure of new firms over the business cycle," IAB-Discussion Paper 201642, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    7. Tania Babina & Wenting Ma & Christian Moser & Paige Ouimet & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2019. "Pay, Employment, and Dynamics of Young Firms," Working Papers 19-23, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    8. Andreas Koch & Jochen Späth & Harald Strotmann, 2013. "The role of employees for post-entry firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 733-755, October.
    9. Schröpf, Benedikt, 2021. "The dynamics of wage dispersion between firms: The role of firm entry and exit," Discussion Papers 120, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    10. Fackler, Daniel, 2014. "Establishment survival in East and West Germany: A comparative analysis," Discussion Papers 90, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Chair of Labour and Regional Economics.
    11. Pawel Adrjan, 2018. "Risky Business? Earnings Prospects of Employees at Young Firms," Economics Series Working Papers 852, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    12. Benedikt Schröpf, 2023. "The dynamics of wage dispersion between firms: the role of firm entry and exit," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 57(1), pages 1-29, December.
    13. Kim, J. Daniel, 2018. "Is there a startup wage premium? Evidence from MIT graduates," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 637-649.
    14. Knutsson, Polina, 2018. "Sorting on Unobserved Skills into New Firms," Working Papers 2018:38, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    15. Seung Hoon D. Chung & Simon C. Parker, 2023. "Founder affiliations: jobseeker reactions and impact on employee recruitment by start-up ventures," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 259-283, June.
    16. Murmann, Martin, 2017. "The Growth and Human Capital Structure of New Firms over the Business Cycle," VfS Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168290, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Kristina Nyström & Gulzat Elvung, 2014. "New firms and labor market entrants: Is there a wage penalty for employment in new firms?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 399-410, August.
    18. Pietro Santoleri, 2020. "Innovation and job creation in (high-growth) new firms [An international cohort comparison of size effects on job growth]," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 731-756.
    19. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Alexandra Schmucker, 2016. "Spinoffs in Germany: characteristics, survival, and the role of their parents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 93-114, January.
    20. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Alexandra Schmucker, 2016. "Spinoffs in Germany: characteristics, survival, and the role of their parents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 93-114, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; ausländische Arbeitnehmer ; Benachteiligte ; IAB-Betriebs-Historik-Panel ; Integrierte Erwerbsbiografien ; Lohnhöhe ; ältere Arbeitnehmer ; Personaleinstellung ; schwervermittelbare Arbeitslose ; Unternehmensgründung ; 2003-2014;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J63 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
    • M51 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Firm Employment Decisions; Promotions
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iab:iabdpa:201817. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: IAB, Geschäftsbereich Wissenschaftliche Fachinformation und Bibliothek (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iabbbde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.