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El diferencial entre las tasas de desempleo de hombres y mujeres en Argentina

  • Ana Carolina Ortega Masagué

En los años noventa el diferencial entre las tasas de desempleo femenina y masculina en Argentina aumentó de forma notable. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar las causas por las que las mujeres, una vez que deciden participar en el mercado de trabajo, tienen menor probabilidad de estar empleadas que los hombres. Al descomponer el diferencial entre las probabilidades medias de estar desempleado se obtiene que mientras las mujeres poseen mejores características productivas, los hombres obtienen mayores rendimientos de ellas. Los resultados indican también que la mayor tasa de desempleo de las mujeres responde a su mayor probabilidad de dejar el empleo para transitar hacia la inactividad y a su menor probabilidad de encontrar empleo si están desocupadas. Sin embargo, los flujos relacionados con la inactividad son similares a los flujos directos entre el empleo y el desempleo. Como consecuencia, se estiman las tasas de salida del empleo y del desempleo, ignorando los flujos relacionados con la inactividad. Por un lado, se encuentra que la probabilidad de transitar del empleo al desempleo es inferior para las mujeres que para los hombres, lo que se explica por diferencias en las características de ambos grupos. Por otro lado, se encuentra que la probabilidad de transitar del desempleo al empleo es mayor entre los hombres, lo que se debe casi exclusivamente a que los efectos que se derivan para hombres y mujeres de unas mismas características son distintos.

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Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2006-08.

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Date of creation: May 2006
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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2006-08
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