IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

The African brain drain: scope and determinants

Listed author(s):
  • Abdeslam Marfouk

This paper empirically examines the determinants of highly-skilled emigration from Africa with recent original data set on international migration. The analysis shows that 10 out of the 53 African countries have lost more than 35 per cent of the their tertiary educated labor force and countries such as Cape Verde (68 percent), Gambia (63 percent), Seychelles (56 percent), Maurice (56 percent) and Sierra Leone (53 percent) suffered from a massive brain drain. Regression models reveal that economic and noneconomic considerations have a strong impact on the African brain drain. This study finds that the degree of fractionalization (ethnic, linguistic and religious) at origin countries, jobs opportunities at destination countries, selective immigration policies, wage gap, geographical distance, former colonial links, and linguistic proximity between countries of origin and destination are the main forces driving highly-skilled emigration from Africa.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/13586/1/dul-0071.pdf
File Function: dul-0071
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles in its series DULBEA Working Papers with number 08-07.RS.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Mar 2008
Publication status: Published by: ULB, DULBEA
Handle: RePEc:dul:wpaper:08-07rs
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://difusion.ulb.ac.be

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 1999. "The Quality of Government," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 222-279, April.
  2. Michele Cincera & Lydia Greunz & Jean-Luc Guyot & Olivier Lohest, 2006. "Capital humain et processus de création d'entreprise: le cas des primo-créateurs wallons," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 49(2).
  3. MARTINEZ-MONGAY Carlos & SEKKAT Khalid, "undated". "The Tradeoff between Efficiency and Macroeconomic Stabilization in Europe," EcoMod2003 330700095, EcoMod.
  4. Didier Baudewyns & Benoît Bayenet & Robert Plasman & Catherine Van Den Steen, 2005. "Impact de la fiscalité et des dépenses communales sur la localisation intra-métropolitaine des entreprises et des ménages: Bruxelles et sa périphérie," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8927, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  5. Caroline Gerschlager, 2007. "Adam Smith's account of self-deceit and informal institutions," DULBEA Working Papers 07-10.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Easterly, William & Kurlat, Sergio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2003. "Fractionalization," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 155-194, June.
  7. Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," NBER Working Papers 9159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Brenda Gannon & Robert Plasman & Francois Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2007. "Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from European Countries," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 38(1), pages 135-155.
  9. Etienne Farvaque & Norimichi Matsueda & Pierre-Guillaume Méon, 2007. "How committees reduce the volatility of policy rates," DULBEA Working Papers 07-11.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  10. Plasman, Robert & Rusinek, Michael & Rycx, Francois, 2006. "Wages and the Bargaining Regime under Multi-level Bargaining: Belgium, Denmark and Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 1990, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Ralph Rotte & Michael Vogler, 2000. "The effects of development on migration: Theoretical issues and new empirical evidence," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(3), pages 485-508.
  12. Michele Cincera, 2005. "The link between firms' R&D by type of activity and source of funding and the decision to patent," DULBEA Working Papers 05-10.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  13. Robert Plasman & Michael Rusinek & Ilan Tojerow, 2007. "La régionalisation de la négociation salariale en Belgique : vraie nécessité ou faux débat ?," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(2), pages 65-74.
  14. Giuseppe Diana & Pierre-Guillaume Méon, 2008. "Monetary Policy in the Presence of Asymmetric Wage Indexation," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 69-90, July.
  15. Chapelle, Ariane & Szafarz, Ariane, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 355(2), pages 509-529.
  16. Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 105(3), pages 465-486, 09.
  17. Michel Beine & Oscar Bernal & Jean-Yves Gnabo & Christelle Lecourt, 2007. "Intervention Policy of the BoJ: a Unified Approach," LSF Research Working Paper Series 07-19, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
  18. George J. Borjas, 1995. "The Economic Benefits from Immigration," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 3-22, Spring.
  19. Lallemand, Thierry & Plasman, Robert & Rycx, Francois, 2005. "Women and Competition in Elimination Tournaments: Evidence from Professional Tennis Data," IZA Discussion Papers 1843, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Axel Dreher & Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Friedrich Schneider, 2014. "The devil is in the shadow. Do institutions affect income and productivity or only official income and official productivity?," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 158(1), pages 121-141, January.
  21. Henri Capron & Michele Cincera, 2007. "EU pre-competitive and near-the-market S&T collaborations," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(1), pages 135-159.
  22. Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2009. "Wage Structure and Firm Productivity in Belgium," NBER Chapters,in: The Structure of Wages: An International Comparison, pages 179-215 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Amynah Vanessa Gangji & Robert Plasman, 2007. "The Matthew effect of unemployment: how does it affect wages in Belgium," DULBEA Working Papers 07-19.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  24. Michele Cincera, 2011. "Déterminants des oppositions de brevets. Une analyse microéconomique au niveau belge," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 62(1), pages 87-99.
  25. Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Friedrich Schneider & Laurent Weill, 2007. "Does taking the shadow economy into account matter to measure aggregate efficiency?," Working Papers CEB 07-027.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  26. Beine, Michel & Bernal, Oscar & Gnabo, Jean-Yves & Lecourt, Christelle, 2009. "Intervention policy of the BoJ: A unified approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 904-913, May.
  27. Amynah Vanessa Gangji & Robert Plasman, 2007. "Microeconomic analysis of unemployment persistence in Belgium," DULBEA Working Papers 07-20.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  28. Thierry Lallemand & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2007. "The establishment-size wage premium: evidence from European countries," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 34(5), pages 427-451, December.
  29. Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2007. "The part-time wage penalty in European countries: how large is it for men?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8555, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  30. Maria Jepsen & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai & Robert Plasman & François Rycx, 2005. "The wage penalty induced by part-time work: the case of Belgium," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 48(1-2), pages 73-94.
  31. Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Khalid Sekkat, 2008. "Institutional Quality And Trade: Which Institutions? Which Trade?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(2), pages 227-240, 04.
  32. Michel Beine & Pierre-Yves Preumont & Ariane Szafarz, 2006. "Sector diversification during crises: a European perspective," DULBEA Working Papers 06-07.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  33. Pierre-Guillaume Meon & Laurent Weill, 2005. "Can mergers in Europe help banks hedge against macroeconomic risk?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(5), pages 315-326.
  34. Ilan Tojerow & Robert Plasman & Michael Rusinek, 2007. "La structure des salaires en Belgique," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8825, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  35. Borjas, George J, 1999. "Immigration and Welfare Magnets," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(4), pages 607-637, October.
  36. Marc Levy, 2006. "Control in Pyramidal Structures," Working Papers CEB 06-023.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  37. Pierre-Guillaume Méon & Khalid Sekkat, 2007. "Revisiting the relationship between governance and foreign direct investment," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(1), pages 41-61.
  38. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  39. Delannay, Anne-France & Méon, Pierre-Guillaume, 2006. "The Impact of European Integration on the Nineties’ Wave of Mergers and Acquisitions," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 21, pages 426-446.
  40. Per-Anders Edin & Robert J. LaLonde & Olof Aslund, 2000. "Emigration of Immigrants and Measures of Immigrant Assimilation: Evidence from Sweden," Working Papers 0020, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  41. Janine Leschke, 2007. "Are unemployment insurance systems in Europe adapting to new risks arising from non-standard employment?," DULBEA Working Papers 07-05.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  42. Ciriolo, Emanuele, 2007. "Inequity aversion and trustees' reciprocity in the trust game," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 1007-1024, December.
  43. Jérôme De Henau & Leila Maron & Danièle Meulders & Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2007. "Travail et maternité en Europe: conditions de travail et politiques publiques," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(1), pages 63-88.
  44. Khalid Sekkat & Marie-Ange Veganzones, 2005. "Trade and foreign exchange liberalization, investment climate and FDI in the MENA," DULBEA Working Papers 05-06.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  45. Abdeslam Marfouk, 2007. "Brain Drain in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 193-218, June.
  46. Marie Pfiffelmann, 2007. "Which optimal design for lottery linked deposit," DULBEA Working Papers 07-09.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  47. Olga Bourachnikova, 2007. "Weighting Function in the Behavioral Portfolio Theory," Working Papers CEB 07-011.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  48. Régis Blazy & Laurent Weill, 2006. "The Impact of Legal Sanctions on Moral Hazard when Debt Contracts are Renegotiable," LSF Research Working Paper Series 06-09, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
  49. John E. Hayfron, 1998. "The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 11(2), pages 293-303.
  50. Ximena Clark & Timothy J. Hatton & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2002. "Where Do U.S. Immigrants Come From, and Why?," NBER Working Papers 8998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  51. Caroline Gerschlager, 2008. "Foolishness and identity: Amartya Sen and Adam Smith," DULBEA Working Papers 08-03.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  52. Mayda, Anna Maria, 2005. "International Migration: A Panel Data Analysis of Economic and Non-Economic Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 1590, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  53. George J. Borjas & Stephen J. Trejo, 1991. "Immigrant Participation in the Welfare System," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 44(2), pages 195-211, January.
  54. William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache, 1998. "How Big is the Brain Drain?," IMF Working Papers 98/102, International Monetary Fund.
  55. Oscar Bernal Diaz & Jean-Yves Gnabo, 2007. "Talks, financial operations or both? Generalizing central banks' FX reaction functions," DULBEA Working Papers 07-03.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  56. Robert Plasman & Michael Rusinek & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2008. "Loonstructuur in België," DULBEA Working Papers 08-04.RR, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  57. Bernal, Oscar & Gnabo, Jean-Yves, 2009. "Announcements, financial operations or both? Generalizing central banks' FX reaction functions," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 367-394, December.
  58. A. D. Roy, 1951. "Some Thoughts On The Distribution Of Earnings," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 3(2), pages 135-146.
  59. Robert Plasman & François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2007. "Wage differentials in Belgium: the role of worker and employer characteristics," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 50(1), pages 11-40.
  60. Leila Maron & Danièle Meulders, 2008. "Having a child: a penalty or bonus for mother's and father's employment in Europe," DULBEA Working Papers 08-05.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  61. repec:hrv:faseco:30747160 is not listed on IDEAS
  62. Adams, Richard H. Jr., 2003. "International migration, remittances, and the brain drain ; a study of 24 labor exporting countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3069, The World Bank.
  63. Borjas, George J, 1987. "Self-Selection and the Earnings of Immigrants," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 531-553, September.
  64. Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai, 2008. "Pay inequality in 25 European countries," DULBEA Working Papers 0006, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  65. Barry R. Chiswick & Paul W. Miller, 1990. "Language in the Labor Market: The Immigrant Experience in Canada and the United States," Working Papers 784, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  66. Paolo Mauro, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712.
  67. Michel Beine & Oscar Bernal Diaz, 2005. "Why do Central Banks intervene secretly? preliminary evidence of the BoJ," DULBEA Working Papers in, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  68. Frédéric Docquier & Olivier Lohest & Abdeslam Marfouk, 2005. "Union européenne et migrations internationales. L'ue 15 contribue-t-elle à l'exode des travailleurs qualifiés ?," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 56(6), pages 1301-1330.
  69. Schiff, Maurice, 1996. "South-North migration and trade : a survey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1696, The World Bank.
  70. George J. Borjas, 1994. "The Economics of Immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1667-1717, December.
  71. Michele Cincera & Verena Bikar & Henri Capron, 2006. "An integrated evaluation scheme of innovation systems from an institutional perspective," DULBEA Working Papers 06-09.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  72. Guido Citoni, 2007. "Are Bruxellois and Walloons more optimistic about their health?," DULBEA Working Papers 07-01.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dul:wpaper:08-07rs. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Benoit Pauwels)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.