IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/dul/wpaper/07-08rs.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Control in pyramidal structures

Author

Listed:
  • Marc Lévy

Abstract

Today, the shareholding structure of companies is sometimes so complex that it can be difficult to find back their actual owners and controllers. In particular, in continental Europe and in Asia, control tunnelling appears frequently through pyramidal structure. After describing the ownership structure through a graph association, this paper analyses the voting game at stake in the race for control. It compares existing methods and algorithms to identify the owners and controllers of a firm in a pyramidal structure without cross-ownership. As a real life example, the case of the Belgian retail company, Colruyt, is used to apply these different methods and compare their results. Furthermore, it shows how the ownership structure allows to the Colruyt family to keep the control of Colruyt even if there are discordances inside the family.

Suggested Citation

  • Marc Lévy, 2007. "Control in pyramidal structures," DULBEA Working Papers 07-08.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:dul:wpaper:07-08rs
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/13614/1/dul-0085.pdf
    File Function: dul-0085
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Post-Print CEB, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 355(2-4), pages 509-529, September.
    2. Cheung, Yan-Leung & Stouraitis, Aris & Wong, Anita W.S., 2005. "Ownership concentration and executive compensation in closely held firms: Evidence from Hong Kong," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 511-532, September.
    3. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2006. "Control consolidation with a threshold: an algorithm," Working Papers CEB 06-007.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Brioschi, Francesco & Buzzacchi, Luigi & Colombo, Massimo G., 1989. "Risk capital financing and the separation of ownership and control in business groups," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 747-772, September.
    5. Randall K. Morck, 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number morc00-1, September.
    6. Ariane Chapelle, 2001. "Corporate governance en Belgique: l'effet des pyramides," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9933, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. repec:hrv:faseco:30747162 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Lucian Bebchuk & Reinier Kraakman & George Triantis, 1999. "Stock Pyramids, Cross-Ownership, and the Dual Class Equity: The Creation and Agency Costs of Seperating Control from Cash Flow Rights," NBER Working Papers 6951, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
    10. Gambarelli, Gianfranco & Owen, Guillermo, 1994. "Indirect Control of Corporations," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 23(4), pages 287-302.
    11. Pradeep Dubey & Lloyd S. Shapley, 1979. "Mathematical Properties of the Banzhaf Power Index," Mathematics of Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 4(2), pages 99-131, May.
    12. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez‐De‐Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    13. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
    14. Chung, Kee H. & Kim, Jeong-Kuk, 1999. "Corporate ownership and the value of a vote in an emerging market," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 35-54, March.
    15. Flath, David, 1992. "Indirect shareholding within Japan's business groups," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 223-227, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Levy, Marc, 2011. "The Banzhaf index in complete and incomplete shareholding structures: A new algorithm," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 215(2), pages 411-421, December.
    2. Marc Levy & Ariane Szafarz, 2017. "Cross-Ownership: A Device for Management Entrenchment?," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(4), pages 1675-1699.
    3. Chapelle, Ariane & Szafarz, Ariane, 2005. "Controlling firms through the majority voting rule," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 355(2), pages 509-529.
    4. Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2006. "Control consolidation with a threshold: an algorithm," Working Papers CEB 06-007.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    5. Anaïs Hamelin-Schertzer, 2010. "Is there tunneling in Small Business Groups? Evidence from French SMEs," Working Papers CEB 10-003.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. T. Biebuyck & Ariane Chapelle & Ariane Szafarz, 2002. "Les leviers de contrôle des actionnaires majoritaires," Working Papers CEB 03-001.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    7. Heitor Almeida & Sang Yong Park & Marti Subrahmanyam & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2009. "The Structure and Formation of Business Groups: Evidence from Korean Chaebols," NBER Working Papers 14983, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Edwards, Jeremy S.S. & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2009. "Control rights, pyramids, and the measurement of ownership concentration," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 489-508, October.
    9. Erik Dietzenbacher & Umed Temurshoev, 2008. "Ownership relations in the presence of cross-shareholding," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 95(3), pages 189-212, December.
    10. Victor Dorofeenko & Larry Lang & Klaus Ritzberger & Jamsheed Shorish, 2008. "Who controls Allianz?," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 75-103, January.
    11. Sereeparp Anantavrasilp & Abe de Jong & Douglas V. DeJong & Ulrich Hege, 2020. "Blockholder leverage and payout policy: Evidence from French holding companies," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1-2), pages 253-292, January.
    12. Gur Aminadav & Elias Papaioannou, 2020. "Corporate Control around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 75(3), pages 1191-1246, June.
    13. Gutierrez, Luis H. & Pombo, Carlos & Taborda, Rodrigo, 2008. "Ownership and control in Colombian corporations," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 22-47, February.
    14. Takayuki Mizuno & Shohei Doi & Shuhei Kurizaki, 2020. "The power of corporate control in the global ownership network," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(8), pages 1-19, August.
    15. Kato, Takao & Long, Cheryl, 2006. "CEO Turnover, Firm Performance and Enterprise Reform in China: Evidence from New Micro Data," IZA Discussion Papers 1914, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Almeida, Heitor & Park, Sang Yong & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Wolfenzon, Daniel, 2011. "The structure and formation of business groups: Evidence from Korean chaebols," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 447-475, February.
    17. Evžen Kočenda & Jan Hanousek, 2012. "State ownership and control in the Czech Republic," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 157-191, August.
    18. Jeremy Edwards & Alfons J. Weichenrieder & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2004. "How Weak is the Weakest-Link Principle? On the Measurement of Firm Owners’ Control Rights," CESifo Working Paper Series 1255, CESifo.
    19. de La Bruslerie, Hubert & Latrous, Imen, 2012. "Ownership structure and debt leverage: Empirical test of a trade-off hypothesis on French firms," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 111-130.
    20. Mike Burkart & Samuel Lee, 2008. "One Share - One Vote: the Theory," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 12(1), pages 1-49.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Ownership; Corporate Governance; Control; Banzhaf Index;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dul:wpaper:07-08rs. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dulbebe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Benoit Pauwels (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dulbebe.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.