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Unconventional monetary policies and the macroeconomy: the impact of the United Kingdom's QE2 and Funding for Lending Scheme

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  • Churm, Rohan

    (Bank of England)

  • Joyce, Mike

    (Bank of England)

  • Kapetanios, George

    (Queen Mary, University of London)

  • Theodoridis, Konstantinos

    (Bank of England)

Abstract

In this paper we assess the macroeconomic effects of two of the flagship unconventional monetary policies used by the Bank of England during the later stages of the global economic crisis: additional quantitative easing (QE) and the introduction of the Funding for Lending Scheme (FLS). We argue that these policies can be seen as complements, as QE effectively bypasses the banks by attempting to reduce risk-free yields directly in order to have a wider effect on asset prices, while FLS operates directly through banks by reducing their funding costs and increasing incentives to lend. We attempt to quantify the effects of these policies by estimating their impact on long-term interest rates and bank funding costs, respectively, and then tracing out their wider effects on the macroeconomy using simulations from a large Bayesian vector autoregression (VAR), which are cross-checked with a simpler auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. We find that the second round of the Bank’s QE purchases during 2011–12 and the initial phase of the FLS each boosted GDP in the United Kingdom by around 0.5%–0.8%. Their effect on inflation was also broadly positive reaching around 0.6 percentage points, at its peak.

Suggested Citation

  • Churm, Rohan & Joyce, Mike & Kapetanios, George & Theodoridis, Konstantinos, 2015. "Unconventional monetary policies and the macroeconomy: the impact of the United Kingdom's QE2 and Funding for Lending Scheme," Bank of England working papers 542, Bank of England.
  • Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0542
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    2. Abeer Reza & Eric Santor & Lena Suchanek, 2015. "Quantitative Easing as a Policy Tool Under the Effective Lower Bound," Discussion Papers 15-14, Bank of Canada.
    3. Domenico Lombardi & Pierre Siklos & Samantha St. Amand, 2018. "A Survey Of The International Evidence And Lessons Learned About Unconventional Monetary Policies: Is A ‘New Normal’ In Our Future?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5), pages 1229-1256, December.
    4. Gros, Daniel & Valiante, Diego & De Groen, Willem Pieter, 2016. "The ECB’s latest gimmick: Cash for loans," CEPS Papers 11425, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    5. Alan Blinder & Michael Ehrmann & Jakob de Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2017. "Necessity as the mother of invention: monetary policy after the crisis," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 32(92), pages 707-755.
    6. Sarah Drought & Roger Perry & Adam Richardson, 2018. "Aspects of implementing unconventional monetary policy in New Zealand," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 81, pages 1-22, May.
    7. Shogbuyi, Abiodun & Steeley, James M., 2017. "The effect of quantitative easing on the variance and covariance of the UK and US equity markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 281-291.
    8. Victor Echevarria Icaza & Simón Sosvilla-Rivero, 2017. "Yields on sovereign debt, fragmentation and monetary policy transmission in the euro area: A GVAR approach," Working Papers 17-01, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
    9. Alan Blinder & Michael Ehrmann & Jakob de Haan & David-Jan Jansen, 2017. "Necessity as the mother of invention: monetary policy after the crisis," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 32(92), pages 707-755.
    10. Simone Giansante & Mahmoud Fatouh & Steven Ongena, 2019. "Does Quantitative Easing Boost Bank Lending to the Real Economy or Cause Other Bank Asset Reallocation? The Case of the UK," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 19-72, Swiss Finance Institute.
    11. Vergote, Olivier & Sugo, Tomohiro, 2020. "Who takes the ECB’s targeted funding?," Working Paper Series 2439, European Central Bank.
    12. Joseph E. Gagnon, 2016. "Quantitative Easing: An Underappreciated Success," Policy Briefs PB16-4, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    13. Papadamou, Stephanos & Kyriazis, Νikolaos A. & Tzeremes, Panayiotis G., 2019. "Unconventional monetary policy effects on output and inflation: A meta-analysis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 295-305.
    14. Forbes, Kristin & Reinhardt, Dennis & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2017. "The spillovers, interactions, and (un)intended consequences of monetary and regulatory policies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 1-22.
    15. Dinara Khamitovna GALLYAMOVA & Aidar Il'darovich MIFTAKHOV, 2017. "Boosting The Autonomy Of Regional Banking Systems As A Driver Of Economic Development: The Case Of Russia," Regional Science Inquiry, Hellenic Association of Regional Scientists, vol. 0(2), pages 55-68, December.
    16. Tetsuji Okazaki & Toshihiro Okubo & Eric Strobl, 2020. "The Bright and Dark Side of Financial Support from Local and Central Banks after a Natural Disaster: Evidence from the Great Kanto Earthquake, 1923 Japan," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2020-001, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    17. José Dorich & Nicholas Labelle St-Pierre & Vadym Lepetyuk & Rhys R. Mendes, 2018. "Could a higher inflation target enhance macroeconomic stability?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 51(3), pages 1029-1055, August.
    18. Ugo Panizza & Charles Wyplosz, 2018. "The Folk Theorem of Decreasing Effectiveness of Monetary Policy: What Do the Data Say?," Russian Journal of Money and Finance, Bank of Russia, vol. 77(1), pages 71-107, March.
    19. Grahame Johnson & Sharon Kozicki & Romanos Priftis & Lena Suchanek & Jonathan Witmer & Jing Yang, 2020. "Implementation and Effectiveness of Extended Monetary Policy Tools: Lessons from the Literature," Discussion Papers 2020-16, Bank of Canada.
    20. Miller, Sam & Wanengkirtyo, Boromeus, 2020. "Liquidity and monetary transmission: a quasi-experimental approach," Bank of England working papers 891, Bank of England.
    21. Harimohan, Rashmi & McLeay, Michael & Young, Garry, 2016. "Pass-through of bank funding costs to lending and deposit rates: lessons from the financial crisis," Bank of England working papers 590, Bank of England.
    22. Maarten van Rooij & Jakob de Haan, 2016. "Will helicopter money be spent? New evidence," DNB Working Papers 538, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bayesian methods; large-scale asset purchases; quantitative easing; Funding for Lending Scheme; vector autoregressions; auto-regressive distributed lag.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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