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Income Contingent Student Loans for Thailand: Alternatives Compared

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  • Bruce Chapman
  • Kiatanantha Lounkaew

Abstract

This paper illustrates the extent of implicit taxpayer subsidies under four possible income contingent loan (ICL) arrangements for Thailand: TICAL, implemented in 2007 only, a variant of TICAL, and two alternative ICL schemes. The implicit taxpayer subsidy calculated with respect to average graduate earnings for TICAL-type arrangements is between 25-40 per cent; however, the average implicit subsidies for the two alternatives are close to zero. When account is taken of disaggregated graduate earnings, the subsidies for TICALtype schemes increase to about 30-55 per cent. The subsidy is between 3-18 per cent for our alternative ICLs, depending on the form of the real rate of interest incurred. These results show that there is a viable ICL alternative to TICAL, which are of greatest benefit for low levels of debt. When the debt is relatively large the subsidies of even well designed schemes can be as high as 50 per cent.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruce Chapman & Kiatanantha Lounkaew, 2009. "Income Contingent Student Loans for Thailand: Alternatives Compared," CEPR Discussion Papers 595, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  • Handle: RePEc:auu:dpaper:595
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    File URL: https://www.cbe.anu.edu.au/researchpapers/CEPR/DP595.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bruce Chapman & Andrew Leigh, 2009. "Do Very High Tax Rates Induce Bunching? Implications for the Design of Income Contingent Loan Schemes," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 85(270), pages 276-289, September.
    2. Bruce Chapman & Kiatanantha Lounkaew & Piruna Polsiri & Rangsit Sarachitti & Thitima Sitthipongpanich, 2009. "Thailand’s Student Loan Fund: An Analysis of Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Hardships," CEPR Discussion Papers 592, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    3. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman, 2002. "The Evidence on Credit Constraints in Post--secondary Schooling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(482), pages 705-734, October.
    4. Barr, Nicholas, 2001. "The Welfare State as Piggy Bank: Information, Risk, Uncertainty, and the Role of the State," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199246595.
    5. L. G. Hines, 1955. "Economics and the Public Interest," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(2), pages 108-119.
    6. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
    7. Chapman, Bruce, 2006. "Income Contingent Loans for Higher Education: International Reforms," Handbook of the Economics of Education, in: Erik Hanushek & F. Welch (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Education, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 25, pages 1435-1503, Elsevier.
    8. Lleras,Miguel Palacios, 2004. "Investing in Human Capital," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828406, October.
    9. Dynarski, Mark, 1994. "Who defaults on student loans? Findings from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 55-68, March.
    10. Johnstone, D. Bruce, 2004. "The economics and politics of cost sharing in higher education: comparative perspectives," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 403-410, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. Bruce Chapman & Kiatanantha Lounkaew & Piruna Polsiri & Rangsit Sarachitti & Thitima Sitthipongpanich, 2009. "Thailand’s Student Loan Fund: An Analysis of Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Hardships," CEPR Discussion Papers 592, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    2. Migali, Giuseppe, 2012. "Funding higher education and wage uncertainty: Income contingent loan versus mortgage loan," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 871-889.
    3. Britton, Jack & van der Erve, Laura & Higgins, Tim, 2019. "Income contingent student loan design: Lessons from around the world," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 65-82.
    4. Schwager, Robert, 2012. "Student loans in a tiebout model of higher education," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 137, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    5. Booij, Adam S. & Leuven, Edwin & Oosterbeek, Hessel, 2012. "The role of information in the take-up of student loans," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 33-44.
    6. Higgins, Tim & Sinning, Mathias, 2013. "Modeling income dynamics for public policy design: An application to income contingent student loans," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 273-285.
    7. Bruce Chapman & Boyd Hunter, 2009. "Exploring Creative Appliances of Income Contingent Loans," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 12(2), pages 133-144.
    8. Chapman, Bruce & Lounkaew, Kiatanantha, 2015. "An analysis of Stafford loan repayment burdens," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 89-102.
    9. Bruce Chapman & Kiatanantha Lounkaewa, 2010. "Repayment Burdens with US College Loans," CEPR Discussion Papers 647, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
    10. Bruce Chapman & Mathias Sinning, 2014. "Student loan reforms for German higher education: financing tuition fees," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(6), pages 569-588, December.
    11. Bruce Chapman & Mathias Sinning, 2011. "Student Loan Reforms for German Higher Education: Financing Tuition Fees," Ruhr Economic Papers 0244, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
    12. Francisco José Collado Muñoz & Elena del Rey Canteli & Natalia Utrero González, 2017. "Estimating taxpayer subsidies and individual repayment burdens of a student loan program in Spain," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 220(1), pages 89-106, March.
    13. repec:got:cegedp:137 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Chapman, Bruce & Liu, Amy Y.C., 2013. "Repayment burdens of student loans for Vietnamese higher education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 298-308.
    15. repec:zbw:rwirep:0244 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Heitor, Manuel & Horta, Hugo & Leocádio, Miguel, 2016. "Enlarging the social basis of higher education: Lessons learned from extending a social support system with a risk-sharing loan scheme in Portugal," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 113(PB), pages 319-327.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    income contingent loans; student loans; higher education financing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I00 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General - - - General
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I22 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Educational Finance; Financial Aid
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy

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