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Scrambling for Dollars: International Liquidity, Banks and Exchange Rates

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  • Javier Bianchi

    (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)

  • Saki Bigio

    (Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles and NBER)

  • Charles Engel

    (Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, NBER and CEPR)

Abstract

We develop a theory of exchange rate fluctuations arising from financial institutions’ demand for dollar liquid assets. Financial flows are unpredictable and may leave banks “scrambling for dollars.” Because of settlement frictions in interbank markets, a precautionary demand for dollar reserves emerges and gives rise to an endogenous convenience yield on the dollar. We show that an increase in the dollar funding risk leads to a rise in the convenience yield and an appreciation of the dollar, as banks scramble for dollars. We present empirical evidence on the relationship between exchange rate fluctuations for the G10 currencies and the quantity of dollar liquidity, which is consistent with the theory.

Suggested Citation

  • Javier Bianchi & Saki Bigio & Charles Engel, 2022. "Scrambling for Dollars: International Liquidity, Banks and Exchange Rates," Working Papers 182, Peruvian Economic Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:apc:wpaper:182
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    2. Oleg Itskhoki & Dmitry Mukhin, 2022. "Sanctions and the Exchange Rate," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 57(3), pages 148-151, May.
    3. Forero Alvarado, Santiago, 2023. "Manejo de liquidez bancaria, prima de liquidez y política monetaria," Documentos CEDE 20305, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
    4. Georgiadis, Georgios & Müller, Gernot J. & Schumann, Ben, 2021. "Global risk and the dollar," Working Paper Series 2628, European Central Bank.
    5. Javier Bianchi, 2022. "The Research Agenda: Javier Bianchi on Financial Crises and Prudential Policies," EconomicDynamics Newsletter, Review of Economic Dynamics, vol. 23(1), April.
    6. Ostry, D. A., 2023. "Tails of Foreign Exchange-at-Risk (FEaR)," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 2343, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    7. Georgios Georgiadis & Gernot J. Müller & Ben Schumann, 2023. "Dollar Trinity and the Global Financial Cycle," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 2058, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Ron Alquist & Karlye Dilts Stedman & R. Jay Kahn, 2022. "Foreign Reserve Management and U.S. Money Market Liquidity: A Cost of Exorbitant Privilege," Research Working Paper RWP 22-08, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.

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    Keywords

    Exchange rates; liquidity premia; monetary policy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F44 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Business Cycles
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General

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