IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Incentives and forms of cooperation in research and development

  • Silipo, Damiano B.
Registered author(s):

    The paper examines the main factors that affect the incentive to cooperate in R&D, inquiring into the effects of cooperation on incentives to innovate in both a complete and an incomplete contract framework. It considers several forms of cooperative agreements and studies the circumstances that make one type of cooperation, more likely than others, to emerge. Theoretical considerations suggest that two of the main factors are uncertainty and spillovers. Further, the incentive to cooperate may be greater or less among symmetric than among asymmetric firms, depending on the source of the asymmetry. When firms cooperate, in most cases they prefer a research joint venture, but because of transaction costs, moral hazard and adverse selection problems other forms of cooperation in R&D may occur. Uncertainty and spillovers also affect the size and the nature of coalitions, and in some circumstances competing research joint ventures may be formed. Finally, the paper surveys the empirical evidence and discusses its consistency with the theoretical conclusions.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WWP-4SD6SJJ-2/1/b65a527a2da92fdbe5b7519e948f5871
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research in Economics.

    Volume (Year): 62 (2008)
    Issue (Month): 2 (June)
    Pages: 101-119

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:reecon:v:62:y:2008:i:2:p:101-119
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/622941

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Bayona, Cristina & Garcia-Marco, Teresa & Huerta, Emilio, 2001. "Firms' motivations for cooperative R&D: an empirical analysis of Spanish firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1289-1307, October.
    2. Rosenkranz, Stephanie, 1995. "Innovation and cooperation under vertical product differentiation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 1-22, March.
    3. Hart, Oliver, 1995. "Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288817, March.
    4. Morasch, Karl, 1995. "Moral hazard and optimal contract form for R&D cooperation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 63-78, September.
    5. Yi, Sang-Seung & Shin, Hyukseung, 2000. "Endogenous formation of research coalitions with spillovers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 229-256, February.
    6. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J Peter, 2004. "Symmetrical Research Joint Ventures: Cooperative Substitutes and Complements," CEPR Discussion Papers 4497, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Roy Chowdhury, Indrani & Roy Chowdhury, Prabal, 2001. "A theory of joint venture life-cycles," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 319-343, March.
    8. Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 1995. "Equilibrium and Optimal Size of a Research Joint Venture in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(2), pages 209-26, June.
    9. Grossman, Gene M & Shapiro, Carl, 1986. "Research Joint Ventures: An Antitrust Analysis," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 2(2), pages 315-37, Fall.
    10. Kim, Chongmin & Shin, Hyukseung, 2002. "Endogenous formation of coalitions with composite goods," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1491-1511, December.
    11. Salant, S.W. & Shaffer, G., 1997. "Optimal Asymmetric Strategies in Research Joint Ventures," Papers 97-06, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
    12. Vonortas, Nicholas S., 1994. "Inter-firm cooperation with imperfectly appropriable research," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 413-435, September.
    13. Marjit, Sugata, 1991. "Incentives for cooperative and non-cooperative R and D in duopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 187-191, October.
    14. Kamien, Morton I & Zang, Israel, 1993. "Competing Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 23-40, Spring.
    15. Beath, John & Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna & Ulph, David, 1998. "Organization Design and Information-Sharing in a Research Joint Venture with Spillovers," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 47-59, January.
    16. Deepak K. Sinha & Michael A. Cusumano, 1991. "Complementary Resources and Cooperative Research: A Model of Research Joint Ventures Among Competitors," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(9), pages 1091-1106, September.
    17. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
    18. Bloch, Francis, 1996. "Sequential Formation of Coalitions in Games with Externalities and Fixed Payoff Division," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 90-123, May.
    19. Yannis Caloghirou & Stavros Ioannides & Nicholas S. Vonortas, 2003. "Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 541-570, 09.
    20. AMIR, Rabah & EVSTIGNEEV, Igor & WOODERS, John, . "Noncooperative versus cooperative R&D with endogenous spillover rates," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1650, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    21. Raymond De Bondt & Irene Henriques, 1995. "Strategic Investment with Asymmetric Spillovers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 656-74, August.
    22. Miotti, Luis & Sachwald, Frederique, 2003. "Co-operative R&D: why and with whom?: An integrated framework of analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1481-1499, September.
    23. Gandal, N. & Scotchmen, S., 1991. "Coordinating Research Through Research Joint Ventures," Papers 6-91, Tel Aviv.
    24. Aghion, P. & Tirole, J., 1993. "On the Management of Innovation," Working papers 93-12, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    25. Ordover, Janusz A & Willig, Robert D, 1985. "Antitrust for High-Technology Industries: Assessing Research Joint Ventures and Mergers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(2), pages 311-33, May.
    26. Roberto Hern·n & Pedro L. MarÌn & Georges Siotis, 2003. "An empirical evaluation of the determinants of Research Joint Venture Formation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(1), pages 75-89, 03.
    27. Desai, Mihir A. & Foley, C. Fritz & Hines, James Jr., 2004. "The costs of shared ownership: Evidence from international joint ventures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 323-374, August.
    28. Hagedoorn, John & Link, Albert N. & Vonortas, Nicholas S., 2000. "Research partnerships1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 567-586, April.
    29. De Fraja, Giovanni, 1993. "Strategic spillovers in patent races," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 139-146, March.
    30. Chen, Zhiqi & Ross, Thomas W., 2003. "Cooperating upstream while competing downstream: a theory of input joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 381-397, March.
    31. Katsoulacos, Yannis & Ulph, David, 1998. "Endogenous Spillovers and the Performance of Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 333-57, September.
    32. Veugelers, Reinhilde & Kesteloot, Katrien, 1994. "On the design of stable joint ventures," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1799-1815, December.
    33. Tao, Zhigang & Wu, Changqi, 1997. "On the organization of cooperative research and development: Theory and evidence," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 573-596, August.
    34. Jeffrey I. Bernstein, 1988. "Costs of Production, Intra- and Interindustry R&D Spillovers: Canadian Evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 324-47, May.
    35. Arrow, Kenneth J, 1969. "Classificatory Notes on the Production and Transmission of Technological Knowledge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 29-35, May.
    36. Lee G. Branstetter & Mariko Sakakibara, 2002. "When Do Research Consortia Work Well and Why? Evidence from Japanese Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 143-159, March.
    37. Eerola, Essi & Maattanen, Niku, 2004. "Strategic alliances, joint investments, and market structure," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 241-251, February.
    38. Stenbacka, Rune & Tombak, Mihkel M., 1998. "Technology policy and the organization of R&D," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 503-520, September.
    39. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Mikhel M. Tombak & Ralph Siebert, 1997. "Why Firms Form Research Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence," CIG Working Papers FS IV 97-06, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG), revised Oct 1997.
    40. Rosenkranz, Stephanie & Schmitz, Patrick W., 1999. "Know-how disclosure and incomplete contracts," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 181-185, May.
    41. Bhattacharya, S. & Glazer, J. & Sappington, D., 1991. "Licensing and the Sharing of Knowledge in Research Joint Ventures," Discussion Paper 1991-20, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    42. Ralph Siebert, 1996. "The Impact of Research Joint Ventures on Firm Performance: An Empirical Assessment," CIG Working Papers FS IV 96-03, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
    43. Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2002. "R&D Cooperation and Spillovers: Some Empirical Evidence from Belgium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 1169-1184, September.
    44. Yi, Sang-Seung, 1999. "Entry, licensing and research joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-24, January.
    45. De Bondt, Raymond & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1991. "Strategic investment with spillovers," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 345-366, October.
    46. Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994. "The Management of Innovation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1185-1209, November.
    47. Ray Chaudhuri, Prabal, 1995. "Technological asymmetry and joint product development," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 23-39, March.
    48. Rosenkranz, Stephanie & Schmitz, Patrick W., 2003. "Optimal allocation of ownership rights in dynamic R&D alliances," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 153-173, April.
    49. Okamuro, Hiroyuki, 2007. "Determinants of successful R&D cooperation in Japanese small businesses: The impact of organizational and contractual characteristics," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1529-1544, December.
    50. Damiano Silipo, 2005. "The Evolution of Cooperation in Patent Races:Theory and Experimental Evidence," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 85(1), pages 1-38, 07.
    51. Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yimin, 2006. "Rivalry between strategic alliances," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 287-301, March.
    52. Banerjee, Samiran & Lin, Ping, 2001. "Vertical research joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(1-2), pages 285-302, January.
    53. Vonortas, Nicholas S., 1997. "Research joint ventures in the US," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4-5), pages 577-595, December.
    54. Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1988. "Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm," Working papers 495, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    55. Shapiro, Carl & Willig, Robert D, 1990. "On the Antitrust Treatment of Production Joint Ventures," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 113-30, Summer.
    56. Yi, Sang-Seung, 1997. "Stable Coalition Structures with Externalities," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 201-237, August.
    57. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
    58. Belleflamme, Paul, 2000. "Stable Coalition Structures with Open Membership and Asymmetric Firms," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 1-21, January.
    59. Baumol, William J., 2001. "When is inter-firm coordination beneficial? The case of innovation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 727-737, April.
    60. Francis Bloch, 1995. "Endogenous Structures of Association in Oligopolies," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 537-556, Autumn.
    61. Combs, K. L., 1993. "The role of information sharing in cooperative research and development," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 535-551.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:reecon:v:62:y:2008:i:2:p:101-119. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.