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Symmetric research joint ventures: Cooperative substitutes and complements

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  • Leahy, Dermot
  • Neary, J. Peter

Abstract

We introduce the concept of cooperative substitutes and complements, and use it to throw light on the conditions for a research joint venture to choose equal levels of R&D by all member firms. We show that the second-order conditions for a symmetric optimum take a particularly simple form, ruling out both excessive cooperative substitutability and excessive cooperative complementarity, and nesting conditions already derived in the literature. Finally we explore the implications of our results for the comparison between research joint ventures and a non-cooperative equilibrium.
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Suggested Citation

  • Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J. Peter, 2005. "Symmetric research joint ventures: Cooperative substitutes and complements," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 381-397, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:23:y:2005:i:5-6:p:381-397
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    1. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-1137, December.
    2. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J Peter, 1996. "International R&D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy without Government Commitment," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 322-338, October.
    3. W. Salant, Stephen & Shaffer, Greg, 1998. "Optimal asymmetric strategies in research joint ventures," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 195-208, March.
    4. Greg Shaffer & Stephen W. Salant, 1999. "Unequal Treatment of Identical Agents in Cournot Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 585-604, June.
    5. B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1990. "Multimarket Contact and Collusive Behavior," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 1-26, Spring.
    6. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 1999. "Asymmetric Contributions to Research Joint Ventures," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 50(2), pages 122-137, June.
    7. Theodore C. Bergstrom & Hal R. Varian, 1985. "When Are Nash Equilibria Independent of the Distribution of Agents' Characteristics?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 52(4), pages 715-718.
    8. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
    9. F. H. Hahn, 1962. "The Stability of the Cournot Oligopoly Solution," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(4), pages 329-331.
    10. Seade, Jesus, 1980. "The stability of cournot revisited," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 15-27, August.
    11. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-1306, December.
    12. Dixit, Avinash K, 1986. "Comparative Statics for Oligopoly," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 27(1), pages 107-122, February.
    13. Henriques, Irene, 1990. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 638-640, June.
    14. Oz Shy, 1996. "Industrial Organization: Theory and Applications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262691795, January.
    15. Rabah Amir & John Wooders, 1998. "Cooperation vs. competition in R&D: The role of stability of equilibrium," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 67(1), pages 63-73, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Dermot Leahy & Alireza Naghavi, 2010. "Intellectual Property Rights and Entry into a Foreign Market: FDI versus Joint Ventures," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 633-649, September.
    2. Antonio Tesoriere, 2015. "Competing R&D joint ventures in Cournot oligopoly with spillovers," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 115(3), pages 231-256, July.
    3. Alireza Naghavi & Dermot Leahy, 2006. "Intellectual Property Rights and Entry into a Foreign Market: FDI vs. Joint Ventures," Working Papers 2006.97, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    4. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J. Peter, 2007. "Absorptive capacity, R&D spillovers, and public policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 1089-1108, October.
    5. Thanh Le & Cuong Le Van, 2016. "Trade Liberalisation and Optimal R&D Policies in a Model of Exporting Firms Conducting Process Innovation," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-01314650, HAL.
    6. Ouchida, Yasunori & Goto, Daisaku, 2016. "Environmental research joint ventures and time-consistent emission tax: Endogenous choice of R&D formation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 179-188.
    7. Alireza Naghavi & Dermot Leahy, 2008. "Intellectual Property Rights and North-South Joint Ventures," Center for Economic Research (RECent) 017, University of Modena and Reggio E., Dept. of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    8. Ruble, Richard & Versaevel, Bruno, 2014. "Market shares, R&D agreements, and the EU block exemption," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 15-25.
    9. Dermot Leahy & J. Neary, 2009. "Multilateral subsidy games," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 41(1), pages 41-66, October.
    10. Thanh Le & Cuong Le Van, 2014. "Trade Liberalization and Optimal R&D Policies with Process Innovation," Working Papers 2014-119, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    11. Silipo, Damiano B., 2008. "Incentives and forms of cooperation in research and development," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 101-119, June.
    12. Giammario Impullitti, 2007. "International Schumpeterian Competition and Optimal R&D subsidies," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/55, European University Institute.
    13. repec:hal:journl:halshs-01314650 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Yasunori Ouchida & Daisaku Goto, 2014. "Environmental Research Joint Ventures and Time-Consistent Emission Tax," Working Papers 2014.35, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    15. Haaland, Jan I. & Kind, Hans Jarle, 2008. "R&D policies, trade and process innovation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 170-187, January.
    16. Etienne Billette de Villemeur & Richard Ruble & Bruno Versaevel, 2011. "Coordination and Cooperation in Investment Timing with Externalities?," Working Papers 1128, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    17. Richard Ruble & Bruno Versaevel, 2009. "Market Share, R&D Cooperation, and EU Competition Policy," Working Papers 0910, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.
    18. Meza, Sergio & Tombak, Mihkel, 2009. "Endogenous location leadership," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 687-707, November.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L40 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - General

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