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Vertical R&D Spillovers, Cooperation, Market Structure, and Innovation

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  • Gamal Atallah

Abstract

This paper studies vertical R&D spillovers between upstream and downstream firms. The model incorporates two vertically related industries, with horizontal spillovers within each industry and vertical spillovers between the two industries. Four types of R&D cooperation are studied: no cooperation, horizontal cooperation, vertical cooperation, and simultaneous horizontal and vertical cooperation. Vertical spillovers always increase R&D and welfare, while horizontal spillovers may increase or decrease them. The comparison of cooperative settings in terms of R&D shows that no setting uniformly dominates the others. Which type of cooperation yields more R&D depends on horizontal and vertical spillovers, and market structure. The ranking of cooperative structures hinges on the signs and magnitudes of three "competitive externalities" (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal) which capture the effect of the R&D of a firm on the profits of other firms. One of the basic results of the strategic investment literature is that cooperation between competitors decreases R&D when horizontal spillovers are low; the model shows that this result does not necessarily hold when vertical spillovers are sufficiently high, and/or when horizontal cooperation is combined with vertical cooperation.

Suggested Citation

  • Gamal Atallah, 2002. "Vertical R&D Spillovers, Cooperation, Market Structure, and Innovation," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(3), pages 179-209.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:11:y:2002:i:3:p:179-209
    DOI: 10.1080/10438590210903
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    Cited by:

    1. Bonte, Werner & Keilbach, Max, 2005. "Concubinage or marriage? Informal and formal cooperations for innovation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(3-4), pages 279-302, April.
    2. Uwe Cantner & Andreas Meder, 2006. "Die Wirkung von Forschungskooperationen auf den Unternehmenserfolg - eine Fallstudie zum Landkreis Saalfeld Rudolstadt," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft (Expired!) 24/2006, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    3. Versaevel Bruno & Vencatachellum Désiré, 2009. "R&D Delegation in a Duopoly with Spillovers," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-42, December.
    4. Khazabi, Massoud & Quyen, Nguyen, 2011. "R&D Spillovers, Innovation, and Entry," MPRA Paper 39460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Deming Zeng & Luyun Xu & Xia-an Bi, 2017. "Effects of asymmetric knowledge spillovers on the stability of horizontal and vertical R&D cooperation," Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 32-60, March.
    6. Ishii, Akira, 2004. "Cooperative R&D between vertically related firms with spillovers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1213-1235, November.
    7. Khazabi, Massoud & Quyen, Nguyen, 2008. "Competition and innovation with horizontal R&D spillovers," MPRA Paper 39453, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. René Belderbos & Martin Carree & Boris Lokshin, 2006. "Complementarity in R&D Cooperation Strategies," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 28(4), pages 401-426, June.
    9. Tran, Tat Thanh & Zikos, Vasileios, 2017. "R&D networks among suppliers and manufacturers," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 151-161.
    10. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin & Lokshin, Boris, 2004. "Cooperative R&D and firm performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1477-1492, December.
    11. Leppälä, Samuli, 2015. "Innovation, R&D spillovers, and the variety and concentration of the local production structure," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2015/3, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    12. Pedro de Faria & Francisco Lima, 2012. "Interdependence and spillovers: is firm performance affected by others’ innovation activities?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(36), pages 4765-4775, December.
    13. G. Rossini, 2005. "Pitfalls in private and social incentives of vertical crossborder outsourcing," Working Papers 536, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    14. Klaus Kultti & Tuomas Takalo & Tanja Tanayama, 2015. "R&D spillovers and information exchange: a case study," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 5(1), pages 63-76, June.
    15. Constantine Manasakis & Emmanuel Petrakis & Vasileios Zikos, 2014. "Downstream Research Joint Venture with Upstream Market Power," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 782-802, January.
    16. Bönte, Werner & Wiethaus, Lars, 2005. "Knowledge Transfer in Buyer-Supplier Relationships - When It (Not) Occurs," RWI Discussion Papers 34, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
    17. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin & Diederen, Bert & Lokshin, Boris & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2004. "Heterogeneity in R&D cooperation strategies," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1237-1263, November.
    18. Werner Bönte & Lars Wiethaus, 2005. "Knowledge Transfer in Buyer-Supplier Relationships – When It (Not) Occurs," RWI Discussion Papers 0034, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
    19. Bönte, Werner & Dienes, Christian, 2012. "Energy and Material Efficiency Innovations: The Relevance of Innovation Strategies," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp12001, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
    20. Dusanee Kesavayuth & Constantine Manasakis & Vasileios Zikos, 2012. "Upstream R&D Networks," Working Papers 1201, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    21. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6963 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. repec:zbw:rwidps:0034 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5009 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Kesavayuth, Dusanee & Zikos, Vasileios, 2012. "Upstream and downstream horizontal R&D networks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 742-750.
    25. Alain-Désiré Nimubona & Hassan Benchekroun, 2014. "Environmental R&D in the Presence of an Eco-Industry," Working Papers 1406, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Sep 2014.

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    Keywords

    Vertical R&D Spillovers; Market Structure; Innovation; Vertical R&D Cooperation; R&D Policy;

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

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