Group versus individual discrimination among young workers: a distributional approach
We evaluate the gender wage gap and the unexplained gender wage differential for workers 15-29 year old during the period 1990-1997, using a particularly rich set of data from the Italian Social Security System covering all individuals in the labour markets of two Italian provinces. We estimate separate earnings functions for men and women correcting for endogeneity of education and we evaluate gender discrimination by studying the entire distribution of the unexplained wage gap as suggested by Jenkins (1994). We evaluate discrimination against females by means of bivariate density functions. This innovation makes it possible to condition the density distribution on the marginal distribution of any characteristic and to evaluate more precisely the existence of group and individual discrimination. Our analysis suggests that discrimination is not evenly distributed among women, in relation to their characteristics; in particular, there is evidence of lower discrimination against highly educated females. Moreover in 1997, compared to 1990, discrimination increased in a appreciable way, affecting human capital rich females more significantly. While our work is based in a very local context the richness of the data and the methodological innovation give the results a wider application.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Loprest, Pamela J, 1992. "Gender Differences in Wage Growth and Job Mobility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 526-32, May.
- José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
- Y Ioannides & Henry Overman, 2000.
"Cross Sectional Evolution of the US City Size Distribution,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0483, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Overman, Henry G. & Ioannides, Yannis M., 2001. "Cross-Sectional Evolution of the U.S. City Size Distribution," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 543-566, May.
- Henry G. Overman & Yannis Menelaos Ioannides, 2001. "Cross-sectional evolution of the U.S. city size distribution," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 584, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Yannis M. Ioannides & Henry G. Overman, 1999. "Cross-Sectional Evolution of the U.S. City Size Distribution," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 9926, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Henry G. Overman & Yannis Ioannides, 2000. "Cross sectional evolution of the US city size distribution," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20137, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Loury, Glenn C, 1981. "Intergenerational Transfers and the Distribution of Earnings," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 843-67, June.
- Durlauf,S.N. & Quah,D.T., 1998.
"The new empirics of economic growth,"
3, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 6422, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Steven N. Durlauf & Danny T. Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," Working Papers 98-01-012, Santa Fe Institute.
- S Durlauf & Danny Quah, 1998. "The New Empirics of Economic Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0384, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Brunello, Giorgio & Miniaci, Raffaele, 1999. "The economic returns to schooling for Italian men. An evaluation based on instrumental variables1," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 509-519, November.
- Nicole M. Fortin & Thomas Lemieux, 1998.
"Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(3), pages 610-643.
- Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1996. "Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions and the Gender Gap," Cahiers de recherche 9607, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
- Fortin, N.M. & Lemieux, T., 1996. "Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions and the Gender Gap," Cahiers de recherche 9607, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
- Gavosto Andrea & Rossi Fulvio, 1999. "Giornate retribuite e differenziali salariali nei dati INPS. Replica all'articolo di A. Ginzburg e altri "Un nuovo autunno caldo nel Mezzogiorno? Note in margine al dibattito sui differenziali sa," Politica economica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 253-258.
- Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kunze, Astrid, 2002. "Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 626, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kunze, Astrid, 2000. "The Determination of Wages and the Gender Wage Gap: A Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 193, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Heckman, James, 2013.
"Sample selection bias as a specification error,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, Gerald H, 1987. "Marital Status, Child Rearing and Earnings Differentials in the Graduate Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 897-922, December.
- Card, David, 2001.
"Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems,"
Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1127-60, September.
- David Card, 2000. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," NBER Working Papers 7769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Quah, Danny T, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, .
"Race and Gender in the Labor Market,"
IPR working papers
98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
- Quah, Danny T, 1996. "Convergence Empirics across Economies with (Some) Capital Mobility," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 95-124, March.
- Lucifora, Claudio & Comi, Simona & Brunello, Giorgio, 2000. "The Returns to Education in Italy: A New Look at the Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 130, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
- Jenkins, Stephen P., 1994. "Earnings discrimination measurement : A distributional approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 81-102, March.
- Wood, Robert G & Corcoran, Mary E & Courant, Paul N, 1993. "Pay Differences among the Highly Paid: The Male-Female Earnings Gap in Lawyers' Salaries," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(3), pages 417-41, July.
- Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Incorporating Occupational Attainment in Studies of Male-Female Earnings Differentials," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(1), pages 3-28.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:0506003. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (EconWPA)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.