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The lifetime gender gap in Italy. Do the pension system countervails labour market outcomes?

  • Roberto Leombruni
  • Michele Mosca
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    In Italy large work career gender gaps currently exists, particularly regarding wages and activity rates. The paper investigates the issue looking at lifetime incomes, where from the one side all the career gaps tend to accumulate, from the other the redistribution acted by the pension system may mitigate the differences. Exploiting an original database on the entire work careers, we document how the pay gap constantly opens with age and how women tend to cumulate lower seniority. Both gaps have an impact in the pension calculation, so that the day after retirement gender differences are even higher. By means of a microsimulation model we show that the pension system partially countervails labour market outcomes, implying lower differences in lifetime incomes. However, due to the current transition to an actuarially neutral system, the effect is going to vanish in following decades, posing some concerns about future prospects of gender income inequality.

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    Paper provided by LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies in its series LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series with number 113.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:cca:wplabo:113
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    1. Giuseppe Costa & Roberto Leombruni & Matteo Richiardi, 2008. "Aspettative di vita, lavori usuranti e equità del sistema previdenziale. Prime evidenze dal Work Histories Italian Panel," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 75, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    2. Elena Bardasi & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2010. "The Gender Gap In Private Pensions," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(4), pages 343-363, October.
    3. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2008. "The gender gap in early-career wage growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 983-1024, 07.
    4. Emilia Del Bono & Daniela Vuri, 2008. "Job Mobility and the Gender Wage Gap in Italy," CESifo Working Paper Series 2435, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Adriano Paggiaro & Enrico Rettore & Ugo Trivellato, 2009. "The Effect of a Longer Eligibility to a Labour Market Programme for Dismissed Workers," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 23(1), pages 37-66, 03.
    6. Roberto Leombruni & Matteo Richiardi, 2006. "LABORsim: an Agent-Based Microsimulation of Labour Supply. An Application to Italy," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 46, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    7. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "Unequal Pay or Unequal employment? A Cross-Country Analysis of Gender Gaps," CEP Discussion Papers dp0711, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    8. Ghazala Azmat & Maia Güell & Alan Manning, 2003. "Gender Gaps in Unemployment Rates in OECD Countries," Working Papers 137, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    9. Kunze, Astrid, 2002. "Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 626, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Laura Hospido, 2009. "Gender differences in wage growth and job mobility of young workers in Spain," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 33(1), pages 5-37, January.
    11. Daniela Del Boca & Robert M. Sauer, 2006. "Life Cycle Employment and Fertility Across Institutional Environments," CHILD Working Papers wp14_06, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    12. F. Alfonso Arellano, 2005. "Evaluating The Effects Of Labour Market Reforms “At The Margin” On Unemployment And Employment Stability: The Spanish Case," Economics Working Papers we051205, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.
    13. Sami Napari, 2006. "The Early Career Gender Wage Gap," CEP Discussion Papers dp0738, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    14. Roberto Leombruni & Claudia Villosio, 2005. "Employability of Older Workers in Italy and Europe," LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series 43, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
    15. Donata Favaro & Stefano Magrini, 2005. "Group versus individual discrimination among young workers: a distributional approach," Labor and Demography 0506003, EconWPA.
    16. Nopo, Hugo & Daza, Nancy & Ramos, Johanna, 2011. "Gender Earnings Gaps in the World," IZA Discussion Papers 5736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    17. Daniela Del Boca & Silvia Pasqua & Chiara Pronzato, 2005. "Fertility and Employment in Italy, France, and the UK," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 19(s1), pages 51-77, December.
    18. William E. Even & David A. Macpherson, 1994. "Gender Differences in Pensions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 555-587.
    19. Michele Belloni & Carlo Maccheroni, 2013. "Actuarial Fairness When Longevity Increases: An Evaluation of the Italian Pension System," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 638-674, October.
    20. Martin Schindler, 2009. "The Italian Labor Market; Recent Trends, Institutions, and Reform Options," IMF Working Papers 09/47, International Monetary Fund.
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