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Globalization and the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Economy

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This paper argues that recent trends in the global economy have led to a shift in developed countries’ comparative advantage from mature industrial to early stage entrepreneurial production. We develop a three stage product life cycle model in which we distinguish between life cycle stages characterized by new, mature and off-shored production. In that model we analyze the impact of a level shock in the supply of unskilled labor in the South, a decrease in the level of political risk associated with outward foreign direct investment (off-shoring), and the widespread diffusion of a general purpose technology such as ICT. Due to endogenous responses in the allocation of entrepreneurial activity, the above shocks all result in a shift in the comparative advantage of developed countries towards new varieties, which corresponds to activities in the early stages of the product life cycle. Moreover, because entrepreneurs also serve as the agents that move varieties between life cycle stages, their value added increases due to globalization and technical change. By contrast, the factors of production employed in the mature stage of the life cycle, e.g. low skilled northern labor, become less valuable. Thus, the model predicts the emergence of an entrepreneurial economy in the North as the South opens up to trade and industrializes.

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  • D. Audretsch & M. Sanders, 2008. "Globalization and the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Economy," Working Papers 08-21, Utrecht School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0821
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    Cited by:

    1. David Audretsch & Mark Sanders & Lu Zhang, 2021. "International product life cycles, trade and development stages," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 46(5), pages 1630-1673, October.
    2. Ari Hyytinen & Mika Maliranta, 2008. "When Do Employees Leave Their Job for Entrepreneurship?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 110(1), pages 1-21, March.
    3. D.B. Audretsch & A.R. Thurik, 2010. "Unraveling the Shift to the Entrepreneurial Economy," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 10-080/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 02 Apr 2011.
    4. repec:use:tkiwps:1818 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Thai, Mai Thi Thanh & Turkina, Ekaterina, 2014. "Macro-level determinants of formal entrepreneurship versus informal entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 490-510.
    6. Audretsch, David B & Sanders, Mark, 2007. "Globalization and the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Economy," CEPR Discussion Papers 6247, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Yilmaz Bayar & Marius Dan Gavriletea & Zeki Ucar, 2018. "Financial Sector Development, Openness, and Entrepreneurship: Panel Regression Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-11, September.
    8. David B. Audretsch & Mark Sanders, 2009. "Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Development," WIDER Working Paper Series RP2009-50, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Ugur Aytun & Yilmaz Kilicaslan, 2017. "Product Life Cycle and Innovativeness: The Case of MENA," World Journal of Applied Economics, WERI-World Economic Research Institute, vol. 3(2), pages 48-91, December.
    10. M. Sanders & J.W.B. Bos & C. Economidou, 2007. "R&D over the Life Cycle," Working Papers 07-18, Utrecht School of Economics.

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    Keywords

    Product Cycles; International Trade; Entrepreneurship; Globalization;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F01 - International Economics - - General - - - Global Outlook
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • P0 - Economic Systems - - General

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