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Effects of Timing and Reference Frame of Feedback

Author

Listed:
  • Fischer, Mira

    (WZB Berlin)

  • Wagner, Valentin

    (University of Mainz)

Abstract

Information about past performance has been found to sometimes improve and sometimes worsen subsequent performance. Two factors may help to explain this puzzle: which aspect of one\'s past performance the information refers to and when it is revealed. In a field experiment in secondary schools, students received information about their absolute rank in the last math exam (level feedback), their change in ranks between the second-last and the last math exam (change feedback), or no feedback. Feedback was given either 1-3 days (early) or immediately (late) before the final math exam of the semester. Both level feedback and change feedback significantly improve students\' grades in the final exam when given early and tend to worsen them when given late. The largest effects are found for negative change feedback and are concentrated on male students, who adjust their ability beliefs downwards in response to feedback.

Suggested Citation

  • Fischer, Mira & Wagner, Valentin, 2019. "Effects of Timing and Reference Frame of Feedback," Rationality and Competition Discussion Paper Series 150, CRC TRR 190 Rationality and Competition.
  • Handle: RePEc:rco:dpaper:150
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Gerhard Riener & Sebastian Schneider & Valentin Wagner, 2020. "Addressing Validity and Generalizability Concerns in Field Experiments," Discussion Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2020_16, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    timing of feedback; type of feedback; beliefs; education; field experiment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D83 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness
    • D91 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education

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