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Splitting Up Value: A Critical Review of Residual Income Theories

  • Carlo Alberto, Magni

This paper deals with the notion of residual income, which may be defined as the surplus profit that residues after a capital charge (opportunity cost) has been covered. While the origins of the notion trace back to the 19th century, in-depth theoretical investigations and widespread real-life applications are relatively recent and concern an interdisciplinary field connecting management accounting, corporate finance and financial mathematics (Peasnell, 1981, 1982; Peccati, 1987, 1989, 1991; Stewart, 1991; Ohlson, 1995; Arnold and Davies, 2000; Young and O'Byrne, 2001; Martin, Petty and Rich, 2003). This paper presents both a historical outline of its birth and development and an overview of the main recent contributions regarding capital budgeting decisions, production and sales decisions, implementation of optimal portfolios, forecasts of asset prices and calculation of intrinsic values. A most recent theory, the systemic-value-added approach (also named lost-capital paradigm), provides a dierent denition of residual income, consistent with arbitrage theory. En- folded in Keynes's (1936) notion of user cost and forerun by Pressacco and Stucchi (1997), the theory has been formally introduced in Magni (2000a,b,c; 2001a,b; 2003), where its properties are thoroughly investigated as well as its relations with the standard theory; two different lost-capital metrics have been considered, for value-based management purposes, by Drukarczyk and Schueler (2000) and Young and O'Byrne (2001). This work illustrates the main properties of the two theories and their relations, and provides a minimal guide to construction of performance metrics in the two approaches.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 10506.

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Date of creation: 11 Sep 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:10506
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  1. Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411.
  2. Carlo Alberto Magni, 2009. "Opportunity Cost, Excess Profit, and Counterfactual Conditionals," Frontiers in Finance and Economics, SKEMA Business School, vol. 6(1), pages 118-154, April.
  3. Carlo Alberto Magni, 2003. "Decomposition of Net Final Values: Systemic Value Added and Residual Income," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 149-176, 04.
  4. Fernandez, Pablo, 2005. "Reply to "Comment on the value of tax shields is NOT equal to the present value of tax shields"," IESE Research Papers D/579, IESE Business School.
  5. James A. Ohlson, 2003. "Positive (Zero) NPV Projects and the Behavior of Residual Earnings," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1-2), pages 7-16.
  6. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2005. "Economic profit, NPV, and CAPM: Biases and violations of Modigliani and Miller's Proposition I," MPRA Paper 7359, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Feb 2008.
  7. Daniel Teichroew & Alexander A. Robichek & Michael Montalbano, 1965. "Mathematical Analysis of Rates of Return Under Certainty," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 11(3), pages 395-403, January.
  8. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2009. "Correct or incorrect application of CAPM? Correct or incorrect decisions with CAPM?," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(2), pages 549-560, January.
  9. Carlo Alberto Magni, 2006. "Zelig and the Art of Measuring Excess Profit," Frontiers in Finance and Economics, SKEMA Business School, vol. 3(1), pages 103-129, June.
  10. Carlo Alberto Magni, 2007. "A Sum&Discount Method for Appraising Firms: An Illustrative Example," Department of Economics 0572, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
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  14. Rick Antle & Gary D. Eppen, 1985. "Capital Rationing and Organizational Slack in Capital Budgeting," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(2), pages 163-174, February.
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  18. Stoughton, Neal & Zechner, Josef, 2004. "Optimal Capital Allocation Using RAROC(tm) and EVA," CEPR Discussion Papers 4169, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Cigola, Margherita & Peccati, Lorenzo, 2005. "On the comparison between the APV and the NPV computed via the WACC," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 161(2), pages 377-385, March.
  20. Fernández , Pablo, 2002. "Valuing companies by cash flow discounting: Ten methods and nine theories," IESE Research Papers D/451, IESE Business School.
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  22. Gallo, Paolo & Peccati, Lorenzo, 1993. "The appraisal of industrial investments: A new method and a case study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 465-476, July.
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  29. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2007. "Measuring performance and valuing firms: In search of the lost capital," MPRA Paper 5850, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    ," MPRA Paper 8935, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  37. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2007. "CAPM and capital budgeting: present versus future, equilibrium versus disequilibrium, decision versus valuation," MPRA Paper 5468, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  38. Thomas Pfeiffer & Georg Schneider, 2007. "Residual Income-Based Compensation Plans for Controlling Investment Decisions Under Sequential Private Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(3), pages 495-507, March.
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