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The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields

Author

Listed:
  • Cooper, Ian A.

    () (London Business School)

  • Nyborg, Kjell G.

    () (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)

Abstract

Fernandez (2004b) argues that the present value effect of the tax saving on debt cannot be calculated as simply the present value of the tax shields associated with interest. This contradicts standard results in the literature. It implies that, even though the capital market is complete, value-additivity is violated. As a consequence, adjusted present value formulae of a standard sort cannot be used. Also, Fernandez’s argument implies that the value of the tax saving differs from conventional estimates by a considerable amount. We reconcile Fernandez’s results with standard valuation formulae for the tax saving from debt. We show that, as one would expect, the value of the debt tax saving is the present value of the tax savings from interest. The apparent violation of value-additivity in the Fernandez paper comes from mixing the Miles and Ezzell and Miller and Modigliani leverage policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Cooper, Ian A. & Nyborg, Kjell G., 2005. "The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields," Discussion Papers 2005/14, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:nhhfms:2005_014
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/163580
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Miles, James A & Ezzell, John R, 1985. " Reformulating Tax Shield Valuation: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(5), pages 1485-1492, December.
    2. Enrique R. Arzac & Lawrence R. Glosten, 2005. "A Reconsideration of Tax Shield Valuation," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(4), pages 453-461.
    3. Ian A. Cooper & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2008. "Tax-Adjusted Discount Rates with Investor Taxes and Risky Debt," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 365-379, June.
    4. Richard S Ruback, 2002. "Capital Cash Flows: A Simple Approach to Valuing Risky Cash Flows," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 31(2), Summer.
    5. Robert A. Taggart & Jr., 1991. "Consistent valuation and Cost of Capital Expressions With Corporate and Personal Taxes," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(3), Fall.
    6. Grinblatt, Mark & Liu, Jun, 2008. "Debt policy, corporate taxes, and discount rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 225-254, July.
    7. Myers, Stewart C, 1974. "Interactions of Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions-Implications for Capital Budgeting," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 1-25, March.
    8. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "The value of tax shields is NOT equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 145-165, July.
    9. Miles, James A. & Ezzell, John R., 1980. "The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, Perfect Capital Markets, and Project Life: A Clarification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(03), pages 719-730, September.
    10. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "Reply to "The value of tax shields is equal to the present value of tax shields"," IESE Research Papers D/576, IESE Business School.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Value of tax shields; Leverage policy; Adjusted present value; Unlevered beta; Cost of capital;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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