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A Reconsideration of Tax Shield Valuation


  • Enrique R. Arzac
  • Lawrence R. Glosten


A quarter‐century ago, Miles and Ezzell (1980) solved the valuation problem of a firm that follows a constant leverage ratio L = D/S. However, to this day, the proper discounting of free cash flows and the computation of WACC are often misunderstood by scholars and practitioners alike. For example, it is common for textbooks and fairness opinions to discount free cash flows at WACC with beta input β S = [1 + (1 − τ)L]βu, although the latter is not consistent with the assumption of constant leverage. This confusion extends to the valuation of tax shields and the proper implementation of adjusted present value procedures. In this paper, we derive a general result on the value of tax shields, obtain the correct value of tax shields for perpetuities, and state the correct valuation formulas for arbitrary cash flows under a constant leverage financial policy.

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  • Enrique R. Arzac & Lawrence R. Glosten, 2005. "A Reconsideration of Tax Shield Valuation," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(4), pages 453-461, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:eufman:v:11:y:2005:i:4:p:453-461
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1354-7798.2005.00292.x

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fieten, Paul & Kruschwitz, Lutz & Laitenberger, Jorg & Loffler, Andreas & Tham, Joseph & Velez-Pareja, Ignacio & Wonder, Nicholas, 2005. "Comment on "The value of tax shields is NOT equal to the present value of tax shields"," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 184-187, February.
    2. Nicholas X. Wonder & Paul Fieten & Lutz Kruschwitz & y otros (ver lista abajo), 2003. "Comment on 'The Value of Tax Shields is NOT Equal to the Present Value of Tax Shields', Including an Arbitrage Opportunity," Proyecciones Financieras y Valoración 002163, Master Consultores.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cooper, Ian A. & Nyborg, Kjell G., 2006. "The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 215-225, July.
    2. Schauten Marc B. J., 2013. "Three discount methods for valuing projects and the required return on equity," Contaduría y Administración, Accounting and Management, vol. 58(1), pages 63-85, enero-mar.
    3. Sarmiento-Sabogal, Julio & Sadeghi, Mehdi, 2014. "Unlevered betas and the cost of equity capital: An empirical approach," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 90-105.
    4. Laurence Booth, 2007. "Capital Cash Flows, APV and Valuation," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 13(1), pages 29-48, January.
    5. M. Levati & Jianying Qiu & Prashanth Mahagaonkar, 2012. "Testing the Modigliani-Miller theorem directly in the lab," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 15(4), pages 693-716, December.
    6. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2009. "Splitting up value: A critical review of residual income theories," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 198(1), pages 1-22, October.
    7. Krause, Marko & Lahmann, Alexander, 2017. "Valuation effects of taxes on debt cancellation," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 346-354.
    8. Stefan Dierkes & Ulrich Schäfer, 2017. "Corporate taxes, capital structure, and valuation: Combining Modigliani/Miller and Miles/Ezzell," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 363-383, February.
    9. Assaf Eisdorfer & Thomas J. O'Brien, 2012. "The firm-specific nature of debt tax shields and optimal corporate investment decisions," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 560-570, May.
    10. Mario Massari & Francesco Roncaglio & Laura Zanetti, 2008. "On the Equivalence between the APV and the wacc Approach in a Growing Leveraged Firm," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(1), pages 152-162, January.
    11. Sven Arnold & Alexander Lahmann & Bernhard Schwetzler, 2018. "Discontinuous financing based on market values and the value of tax shields," Business Research, Springer;German Academic Association for Business Research, vol. 11(1), pages 149-171, February.
    12. Lucie Rudolfová, 2018. "The dependence of the costs of borrowed interest-bearing capital on the chosen financial variables
      [Závislost nákladů úročeného cizího kapitálu na vybraných finančních ukazatelích]
      ," Český finanční a účetní časopis, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2018(4), pages 51-69.
    13. Dirk Beyer, 2018. "A matrix approach to valuation and performance measurement based on accounting information considering different financing policies," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 37-61, March.
    14. Lucia MICHALKOVA & Tomas KLIESTIK, 2019. "The Role Of Risk In The Valuation Of Tax Shield," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 13(1), pages 218-233, November.
    15. Magni, Carlo Alberto, 2010. "Residual income and value creation: An investigation into the lost-capital paradigm," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 201(2), pages 505-519, March.
    16. Yixin Chen & Junrui Zhang, 2019. "The Interdependence of Debt and Innovation Sustainability: Evidence from the Onset of Credit Default Swaps," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-24, May.
    17. Peter Molnár & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2013. "Tax†adjusted Discount Rates: a General Formula under Constant Leverage Ratios," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(3), pages 419-428, June.
    18. Daniel Kreutzmann & Soenke Sievers & Christian Mueller, 2013. "Investment distortions and the value of the government's tax claim," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(11), pages 977-989, June.
    19. Keef, Stephen P & Khaled, Mohammed S & Roush, Melvin L, 2011. "Miller's (2009) WACC model: An extension," Working Paper Series 1995, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance.
    20. Marko Volker Krause, 2019. "De and re-levering betas with risky debt," Business Research, Springer;German Academic Association for Business Research, vol. 12(2), pages 703-720, December.
    21. Zurita, Salvador & Castillo, Augusto & Niño, Jorge, 2019. "Inflation, tax integration and company valuation: The Latin American case," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 370-380.
    22. Peter Reichling & Anastasiia Zbandut, 2017. "Costs of capital under credit risk," FEMM Working Papers 170003, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
    23. Marko Volker Krause & Alexander Lahmann, 2016. "Reconsidering the appropriate discount rate for tax shield valuation," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 86(5), pages 477-512, July.
    24. Mike Dempsey, 2013. "Consistent Cash Flow Valuation with Tax†Deductible Debt: a Clarification," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(4), pages 830-836, September.

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