IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/finmgt/v37y2008i2p365-379.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Tax‐Adjusted Discount Rates with Investor Taxes and Risky Debt

Author

Listed:
  • Ian A. Cooper
  • Kjell G. Nyborg

Abstract

This paper derives a tax‐adjusted discount rate formula with a constant proportion leverage policy, investor taxes, and risky debt. The result depends on an assumption about the treatment of tax losses in default. We identify the assumption that justifies the textbook approach of discounting interest tax shields at the cost of debt. We contrast this with an alternative assumption that leads to the Sick (1990) result that these should be discounted at the riskless rate. These two approaches represent polar cases. Each generates its results by using a different simplifying assumption, and we explain what determines the correct treatment in practice. We also discuss implementation of the valuation procedure using the capital asset pricing model.

Suggested Citation

  • Ian A. Cooper & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2008. "Tax‐Adjusted Discount Rates with Investor Taxes and Risky Debt," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 365-379, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:finmgt:v:37:y:2008:i:2:p:365-379
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-053X.2008.00016.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-053X.2008.00016.x
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brian L. Betker, 1995. "An Empirical Examination of Prepackaged Bankruptcy," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(1), Spring.
    2. Cooper, Ian A. & Nyborg, Kjell G., 2006. "The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 215-225, July.
    3. Gilson, Stuart C, 1997. "Transactions Costs and Capital Structure Choice: Evidence from Financially Distressed Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 161-196, March.
    4. Robert A. Taggart & Jr., 1991. "Consistent valuation and Cost of Capital Expressions With Corporate and Personal Taxes," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(3), Fall.
    5. John R. Graham, 2000. "How Big Are the Tax Benefits of Debt?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1901-1941, October.
    6. Benninga, Simon & Sarig, Oded, 2003. "Risk, returns, and values in the presence of differential taxation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1123-1138, June.
    7. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "The value of tax shields is NOT equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 145-165, July.
    8. Gordon A. Sick, 1990. "Tax-Adjusted Discount Rates," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(12), pages 1432-1450, December.
    9. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    10. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-1460, December.
    11. Ian A. Cooper & Sergei A. Davydenko, 2007. "Estimating the Cost of Risky Debt," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 19(3), pages 90-95, June.
    12. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 1998. "Taxes, Financing Decisions, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(3), pages 819-843, June.
    13. Deen Kemsley & Doron Nissim, 2002. "Valuation of the Debt Tax Shield," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2045-2073, October.
    14. Miles, James A. & Ezzell, John R., 1980. "The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, Perfect Capital Markets, and Project Life: A Clarification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 719-730, September.
    15. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "Reply to "The value of tax shields is equal to the present value of tax shields"," IESE Research Papers D/576, IESE Business School.
    16. Merton H. Miller, 1991. "Tax Obstacles To Voluntary Corporate Restructuring," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 4(3), pages 20-23, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Cooper, Ian A. & Nyborg, Kjell G., 2006. "The value of tax shields IS equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 215-225, July.
    2. Dirk Beyer, 2018. "A matrix approach to valuation and performance measurement based on accounting information considering different financing policies," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 37-61, March.
    3. Assaf Eisdorfer & Thomas J. O'Brien, 2012. "The firm-specific nature of debt tax shields and optimal corporate investment decisions," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 38(6), pages 560-570, May.
    4. Molnár, Peter & Nyborg, Kjell G, 2011. "Tax-Adjusted Discount Rates: A General Formula under Constant Leverage Ratios," CEPR Discussion Papers 8330, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Fischer, Marcel & Jensen, Bjarne Astrup, 2019. "The debt tax shield in general equilibrium," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 151-166.
    6. David Yechiam Aharon & Yossi Yagil, 2019. "The Impact of Financial Leverage on Shareholders’ Systematic Risk," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(23), pages 1-23, November.
    7. Peter Molnár & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2013. "Tax†adjusted Discount Rates: a General Formula under Constant Leverage Ratios," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(3), pages 419-428, June.
    8. Lund, Diderik, 2009. "Marginal versus Average Beta of Equity under Corporate Taxation," Memorandum 12/2009, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    9. Sven Arnold & Alexander Lahmann & Bernhard Schwetzler, 2018. "Discontinuous financing based on market values and the value of tax shields," Business Research, Springer;German Academic Association for Business Research, vol. 11(1), pages 149-171, February.
    10. Marko Volker Krause & Alexander Lahmann, 2016. "Reconsidering the appropriate discount rate for tax shield valuation," Journal of Business Economics, Springer, vol. 86(5), pages 477-512, July.
    11. Fischer, Marcel & Jensen, Bjarne Astrup, 2017. "The debt tax shield, economic growth and inequality," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 219, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    12. Carlo Mari & Marcella Marra, 2017. "Deterministic discounting of risky cash-flows," Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(3), pages 1-2.
    13. Christian Koziol, 2014. "A simple correction of the WACC discount rate for default risk and bankruptcy costs," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 653-666, May.
    14. Francesco Cohen & Alessandro Fedele & Paolo Panteghini, 2014. "Corporate Taxation and Financial Strategies Under Asymmetric Information," CESifo Working Paper Series 4772, CESifo.
    15. Lilia Mukhlynina & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2016. "The Choice of Valuation Techniques in Practice: Education versus Profession," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 16-36, Swiss Finance Institute.
    16. Brealey, Richard & Cooper, Ian & Habib, Michel Antoine, 2018. "Valuation in the Public and Private Sectors: Tax, Risk, Debt Capacity, and the Cost of Capital," CEPR Discussion Papers 13277, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Mike Dempsey, 2013. "Consistent Cash Flow Valuation with Tax†Deductible Debt: a Clarification," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 19(4), pages 830-836, September.
    18. Krause, Marko & Lahmann, Alexander, 2017. "Valuation effects of taxes on debt cancellation," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 346-354.
    19. Andrea Gamba & Gordon A. Sick & Carmen Aranda León, 2008. "Investment under Uncertainty, Debt and Taxes," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 37(1), pages 31-58, February.
    20. Marko Volker Krause, 2019. "De and re-levering betas with risky debt," Business Research, Springer;German Academic Association for Business Research, vol. 12(2), pages 703-720, December.
    21. Ian A. Cooper & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2018. "Consistent valuation of project finance and LBOs using the flows†to†equity method," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 24(1), pages 34-52, January.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:finmgt:v:37:y:2008:i:2:p:365-379. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley Content Delivery). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/fmaaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.