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The Value of Tax Shields IS Equal to the Present Value of Tax Shields

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  • Cooper, Ian
  • Nyborg, Kjell G

Abstract

In a recent paper, Fernandez (2004a) argues that the present value effect of the tax saving on debt cannot be calculated as simply the present value of the tax shields associated with interest. This contradicts standard results in the literature. It implies that, even though the capital market is complete, value-additivity is violated. As a consequence, adjusted present value formulae of a standard sort cannot be used. Also, it implies that the value of the tax saving differs from conventional estimates by a considerable amount. We reconcile Fernandez's results with standard valuation formulae for the tax saving from debt. We show that, as one would expect, the value of the debt tax saving IS the present value of the tax savings from interest. The apparent violation of value-additivity in the Fernandez paper comes from mixing the Miles-Ezzell and Miller-Modigliani leverage policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Cooper, Ian & Nyborg, Kjell G, 2005. "The Value of Tax Shields IS Equal to the Present Value of Tax Shields," CEPR Discussion Papers 5182, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:5182
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Miles, James A & Ezzell, John R, 1985. "Reformulating Tax Shield Valuation: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(5), pages 1485-1492, December.
    2. Enrique R. Arzac & Lawrence R. Glosten, 2005. "A Reconsideration of Tax Shield Valuation," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(4), pages 453-461, September.
    3. Ian A. Cooper & Kjell G. Nyborg, 2008. "Tax‐Adjusted Discount Rates with Investor Taxes and Risky Debt," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 37(2), pages 365-379, June.
    4. Richard S Ruback, 2002. "Capital Cash Flows: A Simple Approach to Valuing Risky Cash Flows," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 31(2), Summer.
    5. Robert A. Taggart & Jr., 1991. "Consistent valuation and Cost of Capital Expressions With Corporate and Personal Taxes," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(3), Fall.
    6. Myers, Stewart C, 1974. "Interactions of Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions-Implications for Capital Budgeting," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 1-25, March.
    7. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "The value of tax shields is NOT equal to the present value of tax shields," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 145-165, July.
    8. Grinblatt, Mark & Liu, Jun, 2008. "Debt policy, corporate taxes, and discount rates," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 141(1), pages 225-254, July.
    9. Miles, James A. & Ezzell, John R., 1980. "The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, Perfect Capital Markets, and Project Life: A Clarification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 719-730, September.
    10. Fernandez, Pablo, 2004. "Reply to "The value of tax shields is equal to the present value of tax shields"," IESE Research Papers D/576, IESE Business School.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    adjusted present value; leverage; tax shields;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G31 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Capital Budgeting; Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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