Capital Controls: Myth and Reality - A Portfolio Balance Approach
The literature on capital controls has (at least) four very serious apples-to-oranges problems: (i) There is no unified theoretical framework to analyze the macroeconomic consequences of controls; (ii) there is significant heterogeneity across countries and time in the control measures implemented; (iii) there are multiple definitions of what constitutes a "success" and (iv) the empirical studies lack a common methodology-furthermore these are significantly "overweighted" by a couple of country cases (Chile and Malaysia). In this paper, we attempt to address some of these shortcomings by: being very explicit about what measures are construed as capital controls. Also, given that success is measured so differently across studies, we sought to "standardize" the results of over 30 empirical studies we summarize in this paper. The standardization was done by constructing two indices of capital controls: Capital Controls Effectiveness Index (CCE Index), and Weighted Capital Control Effectiveness Index (WCCE Index). The difference between them lies in that the WCCE controls for the differentiated degree of methodological rigor applied to draw conclusions in each of the considered papers. Inasmuch as possible, we bring to bear the experiences of less well known episodes than those of Chile and Malaysia. Then, using a portfolio balance approach we model the effects of imposing capital controls on short-term flows. We find that there should exist country-specific characteristics for capital controls to be effective. From this simple perspective, this rationalizes why some capital controls were effective and some were not. We also show that the equivalence in effects of price- vs. quantity-capital control are conditional on the level of short-term capital flows.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nicolas Magud & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2006.
"Capital Controls: An Evaluation,"
NBER Working Papers
11973, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Magud, Nicolas, 2007. "Capital controls: An evaluation," MPRA Paper 14097, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Nicolas Magud & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2005. "Capital Controls: An Evaluation," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2005-19, University of Oregon Economics Department.
- Reinhart, Carmen M. & Smith, R. Todd, 2002.
"Temporary controls on capital inflows,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 327-351, August.
- Bartolini, Leonardo & Drazen, Allan, 1997.
"Capital-Account Liberalization as a Signal,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 138-54, March.
- Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999.
"On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems,"
International Journal of Finance & Economics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Reinhart, Vincent, 1999. "On the use of reserve requirements in dealing with capital flow problems," MPRA Paper 13703, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- De Gregorio, Jose & Edwards, Sebastian & Valdes, Rodrigo O., 2000.
"Controls on capital inflows: do they work?,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 59-83, October.
- Donald J. Mathieson & Liliana Rojas-SuÃ¡rez, 1992.
"Liberalization of the Capital Account; Experiences and Issues,"
IMF Working Papers
92/46, International Monetary Fund.
- Liliana Rojas-SuÃ¡rez & Donald J. Mathieson, 1993. "Liberalization of the Capital Account; Experiences and Issues," IMF Occasional Papers 103, International Monetary Fund.
- Rudi Dornbusch, 2001. "Malaysia: Was it Different?," NBER Working Papers 8325, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Akira Ariyoshi & Andrei Kirilenko & Inci Ã–tker & Bernard Laurens & Jorge IvÃ¡n Canales Kriljenko & Karl Friedrich Habermeier, 2000. "Capital Controls; Country Experiences with Their Use and Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 190, International Monetary Fund.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, June.
- Hernán Rincón & Jorge Toro, 2010.
"Are Capital Controls and Central Bank Intervention Effective?,"
BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA
007622, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
- Hernán Rincón & Jorge Toro, . "Are Capital Controls and Central Bank Intervention Effective?," Borradores de Economia 625, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
- Eliana Cardoso & Ilan Goldfajn, 1998.
"Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 161-202, March.
- Eliane A. Cardoso & Ilan Goldfajn, 1997. "Capital Flows to Brazil-The Endogeneity of Capital Controls," IMF Working Papers 97/115, International Monetary Fund.
- Ethan Kaplan & Dani Rodrik, 2001.
"Did the Malaysian Capital Controls Work?,"
NBER Working Papers
8142, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kaplan, Ethan & Rodrik, Dani, 2001. "Did the Malaysian Capital Controls Work?," Working Paper Series rwp01-008, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Kaplan, Ethan & Rodrik, Dani, 2001. "Did the Malaysian Capital Controls Work?," CEPR Discussion Papers 2754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Edison, Hali, 2001.
"Stopping hot money,"
13862, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Smith, R. Todd, 1998.
"Too much of a good thing: The macroeconomic effects of taxing capital inflows,"
13234, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & R. Todd Smith, 1996. "Too much of a good thing: the macroeconomic effects of taxing capital inflows," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 436-464.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1999.
"How Effective Are Capital Controls?,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 13(4), pages 65-84, Fall.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo, 2002.
"Fear of floating,"
14000, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Francisco A. Gallego & Leonardo Hernandez & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2000.
"Capital Controls in Chile: Effective? Efficient?,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
0330, Econometric Society.
- Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff & Miguel A. Savastano, 2003.
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 1-74.
- James Tobin, 1978.
"A Proposal for International Monetary Reform,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
506, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1994.
"The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts And Issues,"
Contemporary Economic Policy,
Western Economic Association International, vol. 12(3), pages 54-66, 07.
- Sebastian Edwards, 2007. "Capital Controls and Capital Flows in Emerging Economies: Policies, Practices and Consequences," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number edwa06-1, October.
- Bernard Laurens & Jaime Cardoso, 1998. "Managing Capital Flows; Lessons From the Experience of Chile," IMF Working Papers 98/168, International Monetary Fund.
- Natalia T. Tamirisa, 2004. "Do Macroeconomic Effects of Capital Controls Vary by their Type? Evidence From Malaysia," IMF Working Papers 04/3, International Monetary Fund.
- Benedict J. Clements & Herman Kamil, 2009. "Are Capital Controls Effective in the 21st Century? the Recent Experience of Colombia," IMF Working Papers 09/30, International Monetary Fund.
- Reinhart, Vincent R, 2000. "How the Machinery of International Finance Runs with Sand in Its Wheels," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 74-85, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16805. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.