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Do capital controls influence the volume and composition of capital flows? Evidence from the 1990s

  • Reinhart, Carmen
  • Montiel, Peter

In the early 1990s capital flows to the Asian economies were dominated by FDI. By contrast, Latin America was attracting little FDI and a large share of its inflows were either short-term or portfolio and viewed as “hot money.” These differences gave rise to the view that Latin America was more vulnerable to a reversal of capital flows than Asia. Yet, scant attention was given to the fact that as the capital inflows persisted those regional differences were eroding–it took the crises of 1997 to reveal that Asia’s exposure to the vagaries of short-term capital was vast. Here we present cross-country evidence that capital controls influence the composition of flows, if not their volume while policies of sterilized intervention influence both volume and composition, skewing flows to the short end of the maturity spectrum. We conclude that Asia’s increasing reliance on short term flows was, in large part, due to the macroeconomic policy response to the initial surge in capital inflows.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 13710.

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Date of creation: Aug 1999
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Journal of International Money and Finance 4.18(1999): pp. 619-635
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:13710
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  1. Reinhart, Carmen & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1994. "Capital inflows to Latin America," MPRA Paper 13406, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Montiel, Peter J, 1996. "The Surge in Capital Inflows to Developing Countries: An Analytical Overview," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 51-77, January.
  3. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
  4. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Aaron Tornell & Andrés Velasco, 1996. "Financial Crises in Emerging Markets: The Lessons from 1995," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 27(1), pages 147-216.
  5. Eliane A. Cardoso & Ilan Goldfajn, 1997. "Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls," IMF Working Papers 97/115, International Monetary Fund.
  6. Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & DEC, 1994. "The new wave of private capital inflows : push or pull?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1312, The World Bank.
  7. Dooley, Michael & Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Kletzer, Kenneth, 1996. "Is the Debt Crisis History? Recent Private Capital Inflows to Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 27-50, January.
  8. Hernandez, Leonardo & Rudolph, Heinz, 1995. "Sustainability of private capital flows to developing countries : Is a generalized reversal likely?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1518, The World Bank.
  9. Reinhart, Carmen & Reinhart, Vincent, 1998. "“Some Lessons for Policy Makers Who Deal with the Mixed Blessing of Capital Inflows,”," MPRA Paper 7123, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Chuhan, Punam & Claessens, Stijn & Mamingi, Nlandu, 1998. "Equity and bond flows to Latin America and Asia: the role of global and country factors," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 439-463, April.
  11. Steven Riess Weisbrod & Liliana Rojas-Suárez, 1994. "Financial Market Fragilities in Latin America: From Banking Crisis Resolution to Current Policy Challenges," IMF Working Papers 94/117, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Carmen M. Reinhart & R. Todd Smith, 1996. "Too much of a good thing: the macroeconomic effects of taxing capital inflows," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 436-464.
  13. Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela, 1998. "Financial crises in Asia and Latin America: Then and now," MPRA Paper 13877, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Claessens, S. & Gooptu, S., 1993. "Portfolio Investment in Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 228, World Bank.
  15. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Sara, 1996. "Capital Flows to Latin America: Is There Evidence of Contagion Effects?”," MPRA Paper 7124, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  16. Corbo, Vittorio & Hernandez, Leonardo, 1994. "Macroeconomic adjustment to capital inflows : Latin American style versus East Asian style," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1377, The World Bank.
  17. Reinhart, Carmen M & Reinhart, Vincent R, 1999. "On the Use of Reserve Requirements in Dealing with Capital Flow Problems," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(1), pages 27-54, January.
  18. Reinhart, Carmen & Dunnaway, Steve, 1996. "Dealing with capital inflows: Are there any lessons?," MPRA Paper 13764, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  19. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993. "El problema de la afluencia de capital: Conceptos y temas
    [The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts and Issues]
    ," MPRA Paper 13682, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Corbo, Vittorio & Hernandez, Leonardo, 1996. "Macroeconomic Adjustment to Capital Inflows: Lessons from Recent Latin American and East Asian Experience," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 61-85, February.
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