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Explaining Age and Gender Differences in Employment Rates: A Labor Supply Side Perspective

  • Stephan Humpert

    ()

    (Institute of Economics, Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)

  • Christian Pfeifer

    ()

    (Institute of Economics, Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)

This paper takes a labor supply perspective (neoclassical labor supply, job search) to explain the lower employment rates of older workers and women. The basic rationale is that workers choose non-employed if their reservation wages are larger than the offered wages. Whereas the offered wages depend on workers' productivity and firms' decisions, reservation wages are largely determined by workers' endowments and preferences for leisure. To shed some empirical light on this issue, we use German survey data to analyze age and gender differences in reservation and entry wages, preferred and actual working hours, and satisfaction with leisure and work.

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Paper provided by University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics in its series Working Paper Series in Economics with number 214.

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Length: 73 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lue:wpaper:214
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://leuphana.de/institute/ivwl.html

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  1. Sarah Brown & Jennifer Roberts & Karl Taylor, 2010. "Reservation wages, labour market participation and health," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 173(3), pages 501-529.
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  3. Constant, Amelie & Krause, Annabelle & Rinne, Ulf & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2011. "Reservation Wages of First and Second Generation Migrants," CEPR Discussion Papers 8208, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Lorenzo Cappellari & Konstantinos Tatsiramos, 2011. "Friends’ Networks and Job Finding Rates," Discussion Papers in Economics 11/40, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
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  6. Robert Shimer & Iván Werning, 2007. "Reservation Wages and Unemployment Insurance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1145-1185.
  7. Bloemen, Hans G & Stancanelli, Elena G F, 2001. "Individual Wealth, Reservation Wages, and Transitions into Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 400-439, April.
  8. Pierre Cahuc & Stéphane Carcillo & André Zylberberg, 2014. "Labor Economics," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01076752, HAL.
  9. John T. Addison & Mário Centeno & Pedro Portugal, 2008. "Do Reservation Wages Really Decline?: Some International Evidence on the Determinants of Reservation Wages," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 85, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  10. Kiefer, Nicholas M & Neumann, George R, 1979. "An Empirical Job-Search Model, with a Test of the Constant Reservation-Wage Hypothesis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(1), pages 89-107, February.
  11. Dale T. Mortensen, 1977. "Unemployment Insurance and Job Search Decisions," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(4), pages 505-517, July.
  12. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Life Cycle Consumption and Labor Supply: An Explanation of the Relationship Between Income and Consumption Over the Life Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(1), pages 188-94, March.
  13. Robert M. Hutchens, 1988. "Do Job Opportunities Decline with Age?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 89-99, October.
  14. Gielen, A. C., 2007. "Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply," Discussion Paper 2007-49, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  15. Brown, Sarah & Roberts, Jennifer & Taylor, Karl, 2011. "The gender reservation wage gap: Evidence from British Panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 88-91, October.
  16. Pannenberg, Markus, 2010. "Risk attitudes and reservation wages of unemployed workers: Evidence from panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 106(3), pages 223-226, March.
  17. Steiner, Viktor, 2001. " Unemployment Persistence in the West German Labour Market: Negative Duration Dependence or Sorting?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(1), pages 91-113, February.
  18. Roger H. Gordon & Alan S. Blinder, 1980. "Market Wages, Reservation Wages, and Retirement Decisions," NBER Working Papers 0513, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Enswar Prasad, 2001. "The Dynamics of Reservation Wages: Preliminary Evidence from the GSOEP," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 70(1), pages 44-50.
  20. Browning, Martin, 1992. "Children and Household Economic Behavior," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(3), pages 1434-75, September.
  21. Chang, Fwu-Ranq, 1991. "Uncertain Lifetimes, Retirement and Economic Welfare," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 58(230), pages 215-32, May.
  22. Wolfgang Franz, 1980. "The Reservation Wage of Unemployed Persons in the Federal Republic of Germany: Theory and Empirical Tests," NBER Working Papers 0578, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Jennifer Hunt, 1992. "The Effect of Unemployment Compensation on Unemployment Duration in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 50, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  24. Chan, Sewin & Stevens, Ann Huff, 2001. "Job Loss and Employment Patterns of Older Workers," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 484-521, April.
  25. Mortensen, Dale T, 1970. "Job Search, the Duration of Unemployment, and the Phillips Curve," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(5), pages 847-62, December.
  26. Jones, Stephen R G, 1989. "Reservation Wages and the Cost of Unemployment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 56(222), pages 225-46, May.
  27. Lazear, Edward P, 1979. "Why Is There Mandatory Retirement?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1261-84, December.
  28. J. J. McCall, 1970. "Economics of Information and Job Search," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(1), pages 113-126.
  29. Katrin Schleife, 2006. "Computer Use and Employment Status of Older Workers - An Analysis Based on Individual Data," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(2), pages 325-348, 06.
  30. Sholeh A. Maani & A. H. Studenmund, 1986. "The Critical Wage, Unemployment Duration, and Wage Expectations: The Case of Chile," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 39(2), pages 264-276, January.
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