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Kausale Evaluation von Pilotprojekten: Die Nutzung von Randomisierung in der Praxis

  • Arni, Patrick

    ()

    (IZA)

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    Wirkungsevaluationen stehen oft vor der Herausforderung, Kausalität zwischen der betrachteten neuen Politikmassnahme und den resultierenden Outcomes herzustellen. Mangelnde Vergleichbarkeit zwischen der Programmgruppe (neue Politik) und der Kontrollgruppe (Status Quo) macht oft eine kausale Interpretation der gefundenen Effekte schwierig (sind wirklich Programmeffekte oder eher Selektionseffekte für das Ergebnis verantwortlich?). Randomisierung – d.h. Zufallszuweisung in Programm- und Kontrollgruppe – sorgt für eine sehr hohe Vergleichbarkeit. In diesem Beitrag werden die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von randomisierten Studien in der Evaluation von Pilotprojekten diskutiert. Erstens werden Gründe, die für Randomisierung sprechen, sowie Einschränkungen in der Anwendung der Methode diskutiert. Im zweiten Teil des Beitrages wird aufgezeigt, wo aktuell randomisierte Evaluationsstudien in Europa bereits eingesetzt werden – diese Beispiele demonstrieren die Einsatzmöglichkeiten und das Potenzial der Methode. Drittens wird auf die Praxis der Umsetzung und Planung von randomisierten Studien eingegangen: Eine Reihe von zentralen Punkten wird diskutiert, die bei der Implementierung von solchen kausalen Evaluationen im Auge behalten werden sollten.

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    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Standpunkte with number 52.

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    Length: 30 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2012
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: published in: LeGes – Gesetzgebung und Evaluation , 2012/3, 23 (3), 355-386
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izasps:sp52
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