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Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation

Author

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  • Abdulloev, Ilhom

    (Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation, Tajikistan)

  • Gang, Ira N.

    (Rutgers University)

  • Yun, Myeong-Su

    (Inha University)

Abstract

Women who want to work often face many more hurdles than men. This is true in Tajikistan where there is a large gender gap in labour force participation. We highlight the role of two factors – international migration and education – on the labour force participation decision and its gender gap. Using probit and decomposition analysis, our investigation shows that education and migration have a significant association with the gender gap in labour force participation in Tajikistan. International emigration from Tajikistan, in which approximately 93.5% of the participants are men, reduces labour force participation by men domestically; increased female education, especially at the university and vocational level, increases female participation. Both women acquiring greater access to education and men increasing their migration abroad contribute to reducing the gender gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Abdulloev, Ilhom & Gang, Ira N. & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2014. "Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation," IZA Discussion Papers 8226, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp8226
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    Cited by:

    1. Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N., 2019. "Schooling Forsaken: Education and Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 12088, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Donato Romano & Silvio Traverso, 2020. "Disentangling the Impact of International Migration on Food and Nutrition Security of Left-Behind Households: Evidence from Bangladesh," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 32(4), pages 783-811, September.
    3. Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology Advancement: Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 86(2), pages 231-246, June.
    4. Arabsheibani, G. Reza & Kudebayeva, Alma & Mussurov, Altay, 2021. "A note on bride kidnapping and labour supply behaviour of Kyrgyz women," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(4).
    5. Asadullah, Niaz & Wahhaj, Zaki, 2016. "Missing from the Market: Purdah Norm and Women's Paid Work Participation in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 10463, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Shreya Pal & Muhammed Ashiq Villanthenkodath & Gupteswar Patel & Mantu Kumar Mahalik, 2022. "The impact of remittance inflows on economic growth, unemployment and income inequality: An international evidence," International Journal of Economic Policy Studies, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 211-235, February.
    7. Anne Oeking & Ernst Ekkehard & Mr. Ralph Chami & Connel Fullenkamp, 2018. "Are Remittances Good for Labor Markets in LICs, MICs and Fragile States?," IMF Working Papers 2018/102, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women’s labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series 119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Ira N. Gang & Kseniia Gatskova & John Landon-Lane & Myeong-Su Yun, 2018. "Vulnerability to Poverty: Tajikistan During and After the Global Financial Crisis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 925-951, August.
    10. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2020. "Development aid, remittances inflows and wages in the manufacturing sector," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 22(2), pages 278-304, December.
    11. Diarra, Lacina & Dessy, Sylvain, 2018. "Land Tenure Security and Non-Agricultural Sector Employment: Household-level Evidence from Uganda," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274240, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Arabsheibani, Reza & Kudebayeva, Alma & Mussurov, Altay, 2021. "Bride Kidnapping and Labour Supply Behaviour of Married Kyrgyz Women," IZA Discussion Papers 14133, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    13. Marc-André Luik & Henrik Emilsson & Pieter Bevelander, 2018. "The male immigrant–native employment gap in Sweden: migrant admission categories and human capital," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 363-398, December.
    14. Benjamin HILGENSTOCK & Zsóka KÓCZÁN, 2020. "Storm Clouds Ahead? Migration And Labor Force Participation Rates In Europe," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 20(2), pages 75-88.
    15. Michael A. Clemens, 2018. "Testing for Repugnance in Economic Transactions: Evidence from Guest Work in the Gulf," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(S1), pages 5-44.
    16. Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Advancement: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/005, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    17. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women's labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2017-119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    18. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2016. "Gender Dimensions of Inequality in the Countries of Central Asia, South Caucasus, and Western CIS," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_858, Levy Economics Institute.
    19. Gatapia, Sophia Christianne M. & Dorado, Rowena A., 2016. "Employment Decision of Female Spouses of Filipino Overseas Contract Workers," Journal of Economics, Management & Agricultural Development, Journal of Economics, Management & Agricultural Development (JEMAD), vol. 2(1), June.
    20. Luik, Marc-André & Emilsson, Henrik & Bevelander, Pieter, 2016. "Explaining the Male Native-Immigrant Employment Gap in Sweden: The Role of Human Capital and Migrant Categories," IZA Discussion Papers 9943, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    labour force participation; gender gap; education; migration; Tajikistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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