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Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation

Author

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  • Ilhom Abdulloev

    (Open Societies Institute, Dushanbe)

  • Ira N. Gang
  • Myeong-Su Yun

Abstract

Women who want to work often face many more hurdles than men. This is true in Tajikistan where there is a large gender gap in labour force participation. We highlight the role of two factors – international migration and education – on the labour force participation decision and its gender gap. Using probit and decomposition analysis, our investigation shows that education and migration have a significant association with the gender gap in labour force participation in Tajikistan. International emigration from Tajikistan, in which approximately 93.5% of the participants are men, reduces labour force participation by men domestically; increased female education, especially at the university and vocational level, increases female participation. Both women acquiring greater access to education and men increasing their migration abroad contribute to reducing the gender gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilhom Abdulloev & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2014. "Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation," Working Papers 342, Leibniz Institut für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies).
  • Handle: RePEc:ost:wpaper:342
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    Cited by:

    1. Donato Romano & Silvio Traverso, 2020. "Disentangling the Impact of International Migration on Food and Nutrition Security of Left-Behind Households: Evidence from Bangladesh," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 32(4), pages 783-811, September.
    2. Arabsheibani, G. Reza & Kudebayeva, Alma & Mussurov, Altay, 2021. "A note on bride kidnapping and labour supply behaviour of Kyrgyz women," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(4).
    3. Sèna Kimm Gnangnon, 2020. "Development aid, remittances inflows and wages in the manufacturing sector," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 22(2), pages 278-304, December.
    4. Diarra, Lacina & Dessy, Sylvain, 2018. "Land Tenure Security and Non-Agricultural Sector Employment: Household-level Evidence from Uganda," 2018 Annual Meeting, August 5-7, Washington, D.C. 274240, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Chami, Ralph. & Ernst, Ekkehard & Fullenkamp, Connel. & Oeking, Anne., 2018. "Are remittances good for labor markets in LICs, MICs and Fragile States?," ILO Working Papers 994987690202676, International Labour Organization.
    6. Arabsheibani, Reza & Kudebayeva, Alma & Mussurov, Altay, 2021. "Bride Kidnapping and Labour Supply Behaviour of Married Kyrgyz Women," IZA Discussion Papers 14133, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Marc-André Luik & Henrik Emilsson & Pieter Bevelander, 2018. "The male immigrant–native employment gap in Sweden: migrant admission categories and human capital," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 363-398, December.
    8. Uchenna R. Efobi & Belmondo V. Tanankem & Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology Advancement: Evidence from Sub‐Saharan Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 86(2), pages 231-246, June.
    9. Michael A. Clemens, 2018. "Testing for Repugnance in Economic Transactions: Evidence from Guest Work in the Gulf," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(S1), pages 5-44.
    10. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2016. "Gender Dimensions of Inequality in the Countries of Central Asia, South Caucasus, and Western CIS," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_858, Levy Economics Institute.
    11. Efobi, Uchenna & Tanankem, Belmondo & Asongu, Simplice, 2018. "Female Economic Participation with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Advancement: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 87864, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Luik, Marc-André & Emilsson, Henrik & Bevelander, Pieter, 2016. "Explaining the Male Native-Immigrant Employment Gap in Sweden: The Role of Human Capital and Migrant Categories," IZA Discussion Papers 9943, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    13. Asrifa Hossain & Shankar Ghimire & Anna Valeva & Jessica Harriger-Lin, 2022. "Does Globalization Encourage Female Employment? A Cross-Country Panel Study," World, MDPI, vol. 3(2), pages 1-13, March.
    14. Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N., 2019. "Schooling Forsaken: Education and Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 12088, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Asadullah, Niaz & Wahhaj, Zaki, 2016. "Missing from the Market: Purdah Norm and Women's Paid Work Participation in Bangladesh," IZA Discussion Papers 10463, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Shreya Pal & Muhammed Ashiq Villanthenkodath & Gupteswar Patel & Mantu Kumar Mahalik, 2022. "The impact of remittance inflows on economic growth, unemployment and income inequality: An international evidence," International Journal of Economic Policy Studies, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 211-235, February.
    17. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women’s labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series 119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    18. Ira N. Gang & Kseniia Gatskova & John Landon-Lane & Myeong-Su Yun, 2018. "Vulnerability to Poverty: Tajikistan During and After the Global Financial Crisis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 925-951, August.
    19. Benjamin HILGENSTOCK & Zsóka KÓCZÁN, 2020. "Storm Clouds Ahead? Migration And Labor Force Participation Rates In Europe," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 20(2), pages 75-88.
    20. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women's labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2017-119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    21. Gatapia, Sophia Christianne M. & Dorado, Rowena A., 2016. "Employment Decision of Female Spouses of Filipino Overseas Contract Workers," Journal of Economics, Management & Agricultural Development, Journal of Economics, Management & Agricultural Development (JEMAD), vol. 2(1), June.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    migration; education; gender gap; labour force participation; Tajikistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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