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Patterns of Integration: Low Educated People and their Jobs in Norway, Italy and Hungary

  • Köllő, János

    ()

    (Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

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    The paper looks at how the distribution of jobs by complexity and firms' willingness to hire low educated labor for jobs of different complexity contribute to unskilled employment in Norway, Italy and Hungary. In search of how unqualified workers can attend complex jobs, it compares their involvement in various forms of post-school skills formation. The countries are also compared by the weight of small firms, which are assumed to assist low skilled workers through interpersonal relationships. The data suggest that unskilled employment in Norway benefits from synergies between work in skill-intensive jobs, intense adult training, informal learning and involvement in civil activities. In Italy, workplaces requiring no literacy skills at all have the largest contribution but small businesses tend to employ low educated workers at a large scale even in highly complex jobs. In Hungary, insufficient skills (relative to Norway) and an undersized small-firm sector (relative to Italy) set limits to the inclusion of the low educated. An extreme degree of social isolation is likely to deteriorate their skills and jobs prospects further.

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    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7632.pdf
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    Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7632.

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    Length: 34 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2013
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: forthcoming in Economics of Transition, 2015, 1, 1-30.
    Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7632
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    1. Kevin Denny & Colm Harmon & Vincent O'Sullivan, 2004. "Education, earnings and skills: a multi-country comparison," IFS Working Papers W04/08, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. Dhawan, Rajeev, 2001. "Firm size and productivity differential: theory and evidence from a panel of US firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 269-293, March.
    3. Berman, Eli & Bound, John & Machin, Stephen, 1997. "Implications of Skill-Biased Technological Change: International Evidence," Working Paper Series 486, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    4. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence Kahn, 2004. "Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1139, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Sanders Mark & Weel Bas ter, 2000. "Skill-Biased Technical Change: Theoretical Concepts, Empirical Problems and a Survey of the Evidence," Research Memorandum 012, Maastricht University, Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    6. Micklewright, John & Schnepf, Sylke V., 2004. "Educational Achievement in English-Speaking Countries: Do Different Surveys Tell the Same Story?," IZA Discussion Papers 1186, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. David H. Autor & Frank Levy & Richard J. Murnane, 2003. "The Skill Content Of Recent Technological Change: An Empirical Exploration," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 118(4), pages 1279-1333, November.
    8. Daron Acemoglu & David Autor, 2012. "What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's The Race between Education and Technology," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(2), pages 426-63, June.
    9. Maloney, William, 2003. "Informality revisited," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2965, The World Bank.
    10. Michael A. Landesmann & Robert Stehrer, 2002. "Evolving Competitiveness of CEEC’s in an Enlarged Europe," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 92(1), pages 23-88, January-F.
    11. James J. Heckman & Jora Stixrud & Sergio Urzua, 2006. "The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 411-482, July.
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