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Gender Differences in Managerial Compensation - Evidences from Denmark

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Abstract

This paper examines the gender earnings gap at the executive level on a unique data set of Danish executives in the period 1992-1995. Ordinary wage equations show that the wage gap disappears when controlling for “Who you are”, “Where you work” and “What you do”. Additionally, decomposition into inter- and intra-occupational differences shows that two thirds of the wage gap are due to differences between occupations. Individual-specific characteristics contribute negatively to the wage gap, i.e. in favour of women. Decomposing by real authority level shows a larger unexplained part of the wage gap. Real authority is more discriminating than formal authority.

Suggested Citation

  • Lausten, Mette, 2001. "Gender Differences in Managerial Compensation - Evidences from Denmark," Working Papers 01-4, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:aareco:2001_004
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    1. Eriksson, Tor & Lausten, Mette, 2000. "Managerial pay and firm performance -- Danish evidence," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 269-286, September.
    2. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
    3. Sherwin Rosen, 1990. "Contracts and the Market for Executives," NBER Working Papers 3542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1997. "Formal and Real Authority in Organizations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(1), pages 1-29, February.
    5. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
    6. Lausten, M., 1998. "CEO Turnover, Firm Performance and Corporate Governance," Papers 98-10, Aarhus School of Business - Department of Economics.
    7. Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Incorporating Occupational Attainment in Studies of Male-Female Earnings Differentials," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(1), pages 3-28.
    8. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
    9. Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
    10. Miller, Paul W, 1987. "The Wage Effect of the Occupational Segregation of Women in Britain," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388), pages 885-896, December.
    11. Gubta, Nabanita Datta & Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Smith, Nina, 2002. "Swimming Upstream, Floating Downstream: Trends in the U.S. and Danish Gender Wage Gaps," CLS Working Papers 01-6, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
    12. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Donna S. Rothstein, 2005. "The Impact of Worker and Establishment-level Characteristics on Male-Female Wage Differentials: Evidence from Danish Matched Employee-Employer Data," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 19(1), pages 1-34, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2012. "Occupational Sex Segregation and Management-Level Wages in Germany: What Role Does Firm Size Play?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1206, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. Elkinawy, Susan & Stater, Mark, 2011. "Gender differences in executive compensation: Variation with board gender composition and time," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 23-45, January.
    3. Elkinawy, Susan & Stater, Mark, 2011. "Gender differences in executive compensation: Variation with board gender composition and time," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 23-45.
    4. Ana Rute Cardoso & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2007. "Mentoring and Segregation: Female-Led Firms and Gender Wage Policies," Economics working papers 2007-20, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    5. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2009. "Glass Ceiling Effect and Earnings: The Gender Pay Gap in Managerial Positions in Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 905, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Anne Busch & Elke Holst, 2011. "Gender-Specific Occupational Segregation, Glass Ceiling Effects, and Earnings in Managerial Positions: Results of a Fixed Effects Model," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 357, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    7. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Tor, Eriksson, 2005. "New workplace practices and the gender wage gap," Working Papers 04-18, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
    8. Bowlin, William F. & Renner, Celia J., 2008. "Assessing gender and top-management-team pay in the S&P Mid-Cap and Small-Cap companies using data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 185(1), pages 430-437, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Managerial compensation; Gender wage gap; Corporate governance;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations

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