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Banks, shadow banking, and fragility

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  • Luck, Stephan
  • Schempp, Paul

Abstract

This paper studies a banking model of maturity transformation in which regulatory arbitrage induces the coexistence of regulated commercial banks and unregulated shadow banks. We derive three main results: First, the relative size of the shadow banking sector determines the stability of the financial system. If the shadow banking sector is small relative to the capacity of secondary markets for shadow banks' assets, shadow banking is stable. In turn, if the sector grows too large, it becomes fragile: an additional equilibrium emerges that is characterized by a panic-based run in the shadow banking sector. Second, if regulated commercial banks themselves operate shadow banks, a larger shadow banking sector is sustainable. However, once the threat of a crisis reappears, a crisis in the shadow banking sector spreads to the commercial banking sector. Third, in the presence of regulatory arbitrage, a safety net for banks may fail to prevent a banking crisis. Moreover, the safety net may be tested and may eventually become costly for the regulator. JEL Classification: G21, G23, G28

Suggested Citation

  • Luck, Stephan & Schempp, Paul, 2014. "Banks, shadow banking, and fragility," Working Paper Series 1726, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20141726
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    Cited by:

    1. Duca, John V. & Ling, David C., 2020. "The other (commercial) real estate boom and bust: The effects of risk premia and regulatory capital arbitrage," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    2. Voellmy, Lukas, 2017. "Shadow Banking and Financial Stability under Limited Deposit Insurance," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168262, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Suarez, Javier & Sánchez Serrano, Antonio, 2018. "Approaching non-performing loans from a macroprudential angle," Report of the Advisory Scientific Committee 7, European Systemic Risk Board.
    4. Kraemer-Eis, Helmut & Battazzi, Francesco & Charrier, Remi & Natoli, Marco & Squilloni, Matteo, 2014. "Institutional non bank lending and the role of debt funds," EIF Working Paper Series 2014/25, European Investment Fund (EIF).
    5. E. Chrétien & V. Lyonnet, 2017. "Traditional and Shadow Banks during the Crisis," Débats économiques et financiers 27, Banque de France.
    6. Funke, Michael & Mihaylovski, Petar & Zhu, Haibin, 2015. "Monetary policy transmission in China: A DSGE model with parallel shadow banking and interest rate control," BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2015, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    7. Konstantin Kosenko & Noam Michelson, 2018. "It Takes More than Two to Tango: Understanding the Dynamics behind Multiple Bank Lending and its Implications," Bank of Israel Working Papers 2018.11, Bank of Israel.
    8. Antonio Bianco, 2015. "Shadow banking, relationship banking, and the economics of depression," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 68(275), pages 297-326.
    9. Voellmy, Lukas, 2019. "Shadow banking and financial stability under limited deposit insurance," ESRB Working Paper Series 105, European Systemic Risk Board.
    10. Duca, John V., 2016. "How capital regulation and other factors drive the role of shadow banking in funding short-term business credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(S1), pages 10-24.
    11. Tobias Adrian & Edouard Chrétien & Michael Chui & Saskia de Vries-van Ewijk & Christoph Fricke & Daniel Fricke & Seppo Honkapohja & Jiasun Li & Victor Lyonnet & Stan Maes & Patrizio Morganti & Daniéle, 2018. "Shadow Banking: Financial Intermediation beyond Banks," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2018/1 edited by Esa Jokivuolle.
    12. Aizenman, Joshua & Binici, Mahir, 2016. "Exchange market pressure in OECD and emerging economies: Domestic vs. external factors and capital flows in the old and new normal," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 65-87.
    13. Stephanie Chan & Sweder van Wijnbergen, 2014. "Cocos, Contagion and Systemic Risk," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-110/VI/DSF79, Tinbergen Institute, revised 29 Oct 2014.
    14. Flore, Raphael, 2015. "Causes of Shadow Banking - Two Regimes of Credit Risk Transformation and its Regulation," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 113178, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. George Pennacchi, 2019. "Banks, Taxes, and Nonbank Competition," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 1-30, February.
    16. Huang, Ji, 2018. "Banking and shadow banking," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 124-152.
    17. Stephen F. LeRoy & Rish Singhania, 2020. "Deposit insurance and the coexistence of commercial and shadow banks," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 159-194, June.
    18. Michael Funke & Petar Mihaylovski & Haibin Zhu, "undated". "Monetary policy transmission in China: A DSGE model with parallel shadow banking and interest rate control," GRU Working Paper Series GRU_2016_007, City University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics and Finance, Global Research Unit.
    19. Bianco, Antonio, 2015. "Relationship Banking, Shadow Banking, and the Economics of Depression," MPRA Paper 65849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Poeschl, Johannes & Zhang, Xue, 2018. "Bank Capital Regulation and Endogenous Shadow Banking Crises," MPRA Paper 92529, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    21. Poeschl, Johannes & Zhang, Xue, 2019. "Bank Capital Regulation and Endogenous Shadow Banking Crises," Annual Conference 2019 (Leipzig): 30 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall - Democracy and Market Economy 203520, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    22. Angus Armstrong & Tatiana Fic, 2014. "Bank Diversification and Valuation: International Evidence," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 438, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bank runs; financial crisis; maturity transformation; regulatory arbitrage; shadow banking;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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