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The other (commercial) real estate boom and bust: the effects of risk premia and regulatory capital arbitrage

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  • John V. Duca
  • David C. Ling

Abstract

The last decade?s boom and bust in U.S. commercial real estate (CRE) prices was at least as large as that in the housing market and also had a large effect on bank failures. Nevertheless, the role of CRE in the Great Recession has received little attention. This study estimates cohesive models of short-run and long-run movements in capitalization rates (rent-to-price-ratio) and risk premiums across the four major types of commercial properties. Results indicate that CRE price movements were mainly driven by sharp declines in required risk premia during the boom years, followed by sharp increases during the bust phase. Using decompositions of estimated long-run equilibrium factors, our results imply that much of the decline in CRE risk premiums during the boom was associated with weaker regulatory capital requirements. The return to normal risk premia levels in 2009 and 2010 was first driven by a steep rise in general risk premia that occurred after the onset of the Great Recession and later by a tightening of effective capital requirements on commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act. In contrast to the mid-2000s boom, the recovery in CRE prices since 2010 has been mainly driven by declines in real Treasury yields to unusually low levels. Our findings have important implications for the channels through which macro-prudential regulation may or may not be effective in limiting unsustainable increases in asset prices.

Suggested Citation

  • John V. Duca & David C. Ling, 2015. "The other (commercial) real estate boom and bust: the effects of risk premia and regulatory capital arbitrage," Working Papers 1504, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, revised 01 Jun 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:feddwp:1504
    DOI: 10.24149/wp1504
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    Cited by:

    1. Adonis Antoniades, 2015. "Commercial bank failures during The Great Recession: the real (estate) story," BIS Working Papers 530, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. John V. Duca & Patric H. Hendershott & David C. Ling, 2017. "How Taxes and Required Returns Drove Commercial Real Estate Valuations over the Past Four Decades," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 70(3), pages 549-584, September.
    3. Duca, John V., 2017. "The Great Depression versus the Great Recession in the U.S.: How fiscal, monetary, and financial polices compare," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 50-64.
    4. John V. Duca & Lilit Popoyan & Susan M. Wachter, 2019. "Real Estate And The Great Crisis: Lessons For Macroprudential Policy," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(1), pages 121-137, January.
    5. Steffen Heinig & Anupam Nanda & Sotiris Tsolacos, 2016. "Which Sentiment Indicators Matter? An Analysis of the European Commercial Real Estate Market," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2016-04, Henley Business School, Reading University.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Asset pricing; Equity premiums; Bank deregulation; Institutional investors; Alternative asset classes; Commercial real estate;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • R33 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets

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