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Banks, Non Banks, and Lending Standards

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Abstract

We study how competition between banks and non-banks affects lending standards. Banks have private information about some borrowers and are subject to capital requirements to mitigate risk-taking incentives from deposit insurance. Non-banks are uninformed and market forces determine their capital structure. We show that lending standards monotonically increase in bank capital requirements. Intuitively, higher capital requirements raise banks’ skin in the game and screening out bad projects assures positive expected lending returns. Non-banks enter the market when capital requirements are sufficiently high, but do not cause a deterioration in lending standards. Optimal capital requirements trade-off inefficient lending to bad projects under loose standards with inefficient collateral liquidation under tight standards.

Suggested Citation

  • R. Matthew Darst & Ehraz Refayet & Alexandros Vardoulakis, 2020. "Banks, Non Banks, and Lending Standards," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2020-086, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2020-86
    DOI: 10.17016/FEDS.2020.086
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    File URL: https://www.federalreserve.gov/econres/feds/files/2020086pap.pdf
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    1. Asriyan, Vladimir & Laeven, Luc & Martín, Alberto, 2018. "Collateral Booms and Information Depletion," CEPR Discussion Papers 13340, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2000. "A Theory of Bank Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2431-2465, December.
    3. Michael Rothschild & Joseph Stiglitz, 1976. "Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(4), pages 629-649.
    4. Luck, Stephan & Schempp, Paul, 2014. "Banks, shadow banking, and fragility," Working Paper Series 1726, European Central Bank.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Lending standards; Credit cycles; Asymmetric information; Non-banks; Regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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